immunology vacc dairy cattle (Risco) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in immunology vacc dairy cattle (Risco) Deck (33):
1

Ideal vaccine

  1. prolonged immunity
  2. free adverse side effects
  3. inexpensive
  4. stable
  5. response distinguishable from natural infection

2

Designing vaccine program

  • disgned per needs of herd
    • risk assessment
      • dz hx
      • biosecurity, animal movement
      • vaccination hx
      • breeding management: bulls used?
    • intended management scheme and management practices

3

Disease occurs when

herd immunity drops below level of disease pressure

4

Declining immunity

  • stress
    • weather
    • poor nutrition
    • calving
  • disease challenge
  • booster lapse

5

Colostrum

  • can be thought of as a vaccine
  • Colostrum
    • immunoglobulins
    • functional maternal immune cells
    • interferon
    • other immune factors
  • vaccination to improve colostral quality
    • vaccines against enteric calf pathogens
      • E. Coli, rotavirus, coronavirus
    • look for specific data on vaccine you want to use

6

maternal antibody interference

  • may be a problem with some vaccines (minimal)
  • mostly for diseases for which humoral immunity is primary protective mechanism

7

DZ that stimulate primarily cell-mediated protection

  • BRSV
  • BHV-1
  • Parainfluenza virus
  • leptospira borgpetersennii

*not blocked by maternal antibody

8

DZ that stim humoral response (antibody)

  • BVD
  • Mannheimia haemolytica
  • Pasteurella multocida

*blocked by maternal antibody

9

Neonatal corticosteroids

  • birth to 5 days
  • systemic immune resonse decreased dramatically during first few days of life
    • worst at 3 days
    • back to normal at 5 days

10

Second period of reduced systemic immune system responsiveness

  • between 3-5 weeks
  • poorly understood
  • corrosponds to when maternal T cells are disappearing from calf
    • in calves fed fresh colostrum
  • especially well documented for vaccines against the 4 primary viral diseases

11

Factors influencing vaccine efficacy

Stress

  • don't vaccinate 1 week before or 1 week after stressful procedures
    • castration
    • dehorning
    • weaning and movement

12

Factors influencing vaccine efficacy

Stage lactation

  • periparturient immune suppression
    • 3-4 weeks pre and post calving
    • delayed and decreased inflammatory responses
    • may also delay or impair responses to vaccines

13

How to assess vaccine efficacy

  • look at label

14

Label claims

USDA allows....

  1. Prevention of infection: Lepto is only one
  2. Prevention of disease
  3. Aid in disease prevention
  4. Aid in disease control
  5. Other
    • pathogen shedding reduction

15

Modified live (attenuated)

advantages

  • strong and long-acting immunity
  • effective intranasal and orally
  • less risk hypersensitivity
  • may stimulate interferon
  • humoral and CMI

16

Modified live (attenuated)

Disadvantages

  • mild systemic rxns occur
  • risk reversion to virulence
  • perpetuation of antigen in pop
  • abortion (depending on virus)
  • limited shelf life

17

Killed (inactivated) vaccines

Advantages

  • unlikely to cause dz
  • stable in storage

18

Killed (inactivated) vaccines

Disadvantages

  • incomplete inactivation
  • short-lived immunity
  • only parenteral route
  • hypersensitivity
  • adjuvants => local reactions

19

booster importance

  • follow label directions
  • yearly booster recommended for MVL and killed
  • killed vaccines require booster before protection complete

20

Responses to Killed vaccines

  • 1st administration => primary response
    • short lived
    • weak response
    • predominant antibody is IgM
  • 2nd administration => anamnestic response
    • stronger response
    • longer lived
    • predominant antibody is IgG
    • more memory

21

Booster vaccination failure

  • booster given too early
    • anamnestic response doesn't occur
  • too much time elapse before booster
    • booster acts as primary response

22

modified live response

  • virus or bacteria grows in animal
    • don't need a booster
    • stimulates primary and secondary response

23

purpose of adult herd vaccination program

  • protect adult herd against high-prevalence or disastrous dz
  • promote reproductive efficiency

24

Purpose of replacement herd vaccination program

  1. protect the calf against specific pathgens that are prevelant or would be disastrous
  2. prepare calf for entry into adult herd

25

multiple antigens

  • Endotoxin load
    • adults: max 3 gram-negative antigens
    • young stock: max 2 gram-negative antigens

26

Minimum US dairy herd vacc program

  • major viral dzs
    • BVD (types 1 and 2)
    • BHV-1
    • BRSV
    • P13
    • at least one MLV for replacements prior to first breeding
      • establishes strong baseline immunity
  • 5 primary leptospira serovars
  • major clostridial diseases
  • core endotoxin vaccines
  • brucellosis

27

Leptospirosis

  • Host adapted: repro failure and abortion
    • L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, type hardjo-bovis
    • L. interrogans serovar Pomona
  • Non host adapted: acute dz
    • L. kirshneri serova Grippotyphosa
    • L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae
    • L. interrogans serovar Canicola

*something about endemic in rats

*booster q 6 months I think

*classic example for concept of boostering

28

always give a particular vaccine at....

  • particular site
    • helps ID cause of vaccine reactions

29

On-going vaccination monitoring questions

  • Are we vaccinating at the right time?
  • Are we vaccinating against the right diseases?
  • Are we meeting our goals for dz control?

*Stay current

30

dairy vacc protocol

incoming heifers

  • IBR/BVD/P13/BRSV killed
  • Clostridium 7-way
  • E. Coli J5 K99
  • Pinkeye (optional)

31

Tritrichomonus fetus

  • don't use in bulls
    • lives in fornix of prepuce of bulls (no good immune resp)

32

Brucella

  • don't vaccinate a bull
    • because then they will be positive

33

vaccination trouble-shooting

  • fridge working
  • handling
  • timing, site,