Impact of Dementia on Patients, Family and Carers Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Impact of Dementia on Patients, Family and Carers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Impact of Dementia on Patients, Family and Carers Deck (25):
1

What is the most common group of dementias?

Neurodegenerative disorders

2

What is the second most common group of dementias?

Vascular dementias

3

What are the most common causes of dementia by proportion?

Alzheimer's disease = 50-60%
Vascular disease = 15-20%
Rest = 10%

4

What are some other causes of dementia?

Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Metabolic disease
Toxins
Nutritional deficiency

5

What are the clinical features of depressive pseudodementia?

Psychomotor retardation
Weakness
Cognitive slowing
Impaired concentration
Sadness
Hopelessness
Inactivity/agitation

6

Is depressive pseudodementia reversible?

Potentially via antidepressant medication

7

What are the prominent features of Lewy-body dementia?

Fluctuating alertness and attention
Recurrent well-formed visual hallucinations

8

What is the onset and progression of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

Gradual, insidious onset
Increased occurrence with age
Progressive decline

9

What are the physical clinical features of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

No early neurological signs

10

What are the cognitive clinical features of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

Memory impairment
Visuospatial impairment
Language impairment - word finding difficulty
Impaired attention
Executive dysfunction
Apraxia

11

What are the affective clinical features of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

Non-specific agitation

12

What are the behavioural clinical features of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

Wandering and becoming lost
Purposeless activity
Difficulty with daily tasks
Failure to recognise others
Sleep disturbance

13

What are the pathological features of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

Plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
Diagnosis post-mortem only
MRI features
- Volume reduction in temporal lobes
- General cortical atrophy

14

What is the onset and progression of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia?

Gradual onset
Younger age
Progressive decline

15

What are the physical clinical features of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia?

Cortical release signs

16

What are the cognitive clinical features of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia?

Impaired attention and executive dysfunction, cognitive disinhibition
Perseveration, mental rigidity
Aphasia leading to mutism
Reduced speech output

17

What are the affective clinical features of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia?

Depression
Anxiety
Excessive sentimentality

18

What are the behavioural clinical features of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia?

Personality changes
Behavioural disorder including
- Disinhibition
- Impulsivity
- Impaired judgement
- Obsessive behaviours
- Apathy
- Anhedonia
Dietary change

19

What are the pathological features of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia?

Loss of cortical neurons and gliosis
Primary tauopathy
MRI: focal cortical loss

20

What is the onset and progression of vascular cognitive impairment?

Gradual onset
Progressive stepwise decline

21

What are the physical clinical features of vascular cognitive impairment?

Focal neurological deficits - vary with location and severity of lesions

22

What are the cognitive clinical features of vascular cognitive impairment?

Diffuse cognitive impairment
Cognitive slowing
Attentional dysfunction
Psychomotor retardation
Secondary executive features

23

What are the affective clinical features of vascular cognitive impairment?

Irritability
Apathy
Blunted affect

24

What are the behavioural clinical features of vascular cognitive impairment?

Withdrawal

25

What are the pathological features of vascular cognitive impairment?

White matter lesions
MRI: hyperintensities
MRI/CT: ventricular volume loss on structural imaging without pronounced cortical loss
Cardiovascular risk factors - not essential/sufficient

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