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Flashcards in Important Enzymes Deck (39):
1

Converts Ribose 5-P to PRPP for Pyrimidine/Purine Synthesis

PRPP Synthetase

2

Converts DHF to THF in Pyrimidine Synthesis

Dihydrofolate Reductase
*Inhibited by: methotrexate, trimethoprim (TMP), and pyrimethamine

3

Converts UDP to dUDP for Pyrimidine/Purine Synthesis

Ribonucleotide Reductase
*Inhibited by Hydroxyurea

4

Converts dUMP to dTMP for Pyrimidine Synthesis

Thymidylate Synthase
*Inhibited by 5-FU

5

Unwinds DNA during replication

Helicase

6

Prevents DNA from reannealing during replication

SSBs

7

Create breaks in DNA to prevent supercoil formation during replication

DNA Topoisomerase
*DNA Gyrase in Bacteria

8

Makes RNA primer during replication

Primase

9

Elongates strand during replication (Prokaryotes)

DNA Poly III

10

Degrades RNA Primer and replaces it with DNA (Prokaryotes)

DNA Poly I

11

Connects Okazaki fragments

DNA Ligase

12

Extends 3' end of DNA at end of replication

Telomerase

13

Converts Glucose to Glucose 6P in most tissues

Hexokinase

14

Converts glucose to glucose 6P in liver and Pancreatic Beta Cells

Glucokinase

15

Converts Fructose 6P to Fructose 1,6 BisP
*Rate limiting step of Glycolysis

PFK 1
+: AMP, Fructose 2,6 BisP
-: ATP, Citrate

16

Converts Fructose 6P to Fructose 2,6 BisP
*Fructose 2,6 BisP: + stimulates PFK 1

PFK 2
+: Insulin
-: Glucagon (through cAMP and PKA)

17

Converts pyruvate to Acetyl CoA

PDH Complex
+: NAD+, ADP, Ca2+
Cofactors: Vitamin B1, B2, B3, and B5, Lipoic Acid

18

Converts Alpha-Ketogluterate to Succinyl CoA

Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase
+: NAD+, ADP, Ca2+
Cofactors: Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B5, Lipoic Acid

19

Converts Acetyl CoA and OAA to Citrate

Citrate Synthase
*Start of TCA
-: ATP

20

Converts Isocitrate to Alpha-Ketoglutarate

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
*Part of TCA
+: ADP
-: ATP, NADH

21

Converts pyruvate to OAA to start gluconeogenesis

Pyruvate Carboxylase
+: Acetyl CoA
Uses ATP, Biotin (B7)

22

Converts OAA to Phosphoenolpyruvate (PPE) in gluconeogenesis

PPE Carboxykinase

23

Converts Fructose 1,6 BisP to Fructose 6P

Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphatase
+: Citrate
-: AMP, Fructose 2,6 BisP

24

Converts Glucose 6P to Glucose

Glucose 6P Phosphatase

25

Converts Glucose 6P to Ribulose 5P in HMP Shunt

Glucose 6P Dehydrogenase
-: NADPH

26

Converts Ribulose 5P to Ribose 5P, G3P, and Fructose 6P

Phosphopentose Isomerase
*Requires B1

27

Converts Fructose to Fructose 1P

Fructokinase

28

Converts Fructose 1P into DHAP and Glyceraldehyde

Aldolase B

29

Converts Galactose into Galactose 1P

Galactokinase

30

Converts Galactose 1P into Glucose 1P for glycolysis

Galactose 1P Uridyltransferase (GUDP)

31

Converts glucose to sorbitol to trap it in the cells

Aldose reductase

32

Converts Carbomyl phosphate into citrulline in the urea cycle

Ornithine transcarbamylase

33

Rate limiting enzyme of glycogen conversion into glucose (glycogenolysis)

Glycogen phosphorylase
+: Glucagon through PKA and Glycogen Phosphorylase Kinase

34

Rate limiting enzyme of glycogen synthesis from glucose

Glycogen Synthase
+: insulin

35

Rate limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis

Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase

36

Degrades triglycerdies in small intestine

Pancreatic Lipase

37

degrades TGs in circulation in chylomicrons and VLDLs

Lipoprotein lipase

38

degrades TGs in IDLs

Hepatic lipase

39

degrades stored TGs in adipose tissue

Hormone Sensitive Lipase
+: Glucagon