Flashcards in Important Scientists Deck (12)
Mike Brown and Joe Goldstein
Worked out the structure of the LDL receptor in their study of familial hypercholesteremia. For this they won the Nobel prize
Discovered that the coat on coated vesicles is made of a protein called clathrin. Clathrin consists of 3 copies of each of 2 proteins, arranged in a triskelion. Triskelions makeup the cages of clathrin-coated vesicles
With colleagues, was the first to discover olfactory receptors, 1000s of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in the nose olfactory bulb that detect different odors.
Worked out the secretory pathway using pancreatic acinar cells. For this he received the Nobel Prize
Tim Mitchison and Mark Kirschner
Instrumental in discovering “dynamic instability,” the way in which microtubules grow and deploymerize. Also showed that Xenopus extract mitotic cytosol induces 5X the turnover rate of the microtubule’s GTP CAP (“Catastrophe”) as occurs in interphase cytosol.
First, along with Mark Davis, to clone the T cell receptor subunits
Mike Bishop and Harold Varmus
Were the first to show that a viral oncogene, v-src, was really a normal cellular gene (c-src), that had been hijacked onto a virus and turned into an oncogene. (Additional mutations in the protein sequence were necessary to turn c-src into an oncogene). Received the Nobel prize for this.
Discovered that antibody diversity stems in large part from combinatorial rearrangement of the Variable regions of the heavy chain gene of immunoglobulins. Received the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
Developed Gleevec, the first treatment to block a cancer-causing kinase and kill cancer cells in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). His type of treatment is referred to as a “magic bullet”
Liz Blackburn and Carol Greider
Won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Medicine for elucidating the structure and function of telomere sequences and discovering the enzyme that copies them, telomerase.
Showed that the kinase ATR monitors DNA replication forks and sends a signal that blocks activation of the mitotic kinase (CDK1/cylcin) until all DNA replication is complete