Important Stuff To Know Semester 2 Year 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Important Stuff To Know Semester 2 Year 1 Deck (64):
0

What are the borders and contents of the femoral triangle?

Apex: junction of the medial border of sartorious, crossing of the lateral border of adductor longus
Medial border: adductor longus
Lateral border: sartorious
Base: inguinal ligament
Floor: Iliopsoas and pectineus
Roof: fascia Lara and cribriform fascia, subcutaneous tissue and skin

Contents (lateral to medial)
Femoral nerve
Femoral vein
Deep inguinal lymph

1

Where and how is the adductor canal formed?

Begins at the apex of the femoral triangle through he overlapping of sartorious on adductor longus. It is an intermuscular passageway and allows passage of the femoral vessels and nerves

2

What is the femoral sheath and how is it formed?

It is a prolongation of the transversal is and Iliopsoas fascia, it transmits he femoral artery and vein as well as lymph

3

What is the femoral canal?

The smallest and most medial compartment of the femoral sheath, is involved in allowing for inflammation of the femoral vein as it transports blood back to the heart, also contains lymph

The opening at its superior end is called the femoral ring and it ends at the saphenous opening

4

What are the boundaries of the femoral ring?

Lateral: fibrous septum between the canal and femoral vein
Posterior: superior pubic ramps and overlying fascia
Medial: lacunae ligament
Anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament

5

What is the pathway of the femoral artery?

Is the continuation of the external iliac artery,
Begins at the lower border of the inguinal ligament,
decends down the thigh through the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath,
Travels centrally down the femoral triangle, entering adductor canal at the apex,
Exits the adductor canal through the adductor hiatus as the popliteal artery

6

What are the branches of the femoral artery?

Superficial epigastric
Superficial circumflex iliac
Superficial external pudendal
Deep external pudendal arteries
Profuna femoral artery
Medial circumflex femoral
Lateral circumflex femoral

7

What are the boundaries and contents of the adductor canal?

Anterior and laterally:
vastus medialis
Posteriorly:
Adductor longus and Magnus
Medially:
Sartorious

Contents:
Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Saphenous nerve
Nerve to vastus medialis

8

What are the divisions of the internal iliac artery and which arteries are in each division?

Posterior and anterior divisions

Posterior division:
Superior gluteal
Iliolumbar
Lateral sacral

Anterior division:
Umbilical
Obturator
Middle rectal
Inferior gluteal
Internal pudendal

9

What arteries of the internal iliac artery are specific to males and females?

Males:
Artery to ductus deferens
Inferior vesicle artery

Females:
Vaginal artery
Uterine artery

10

Pathway of the superior gluteal artery

Runs posteriorly down the pelvis, through the greater sciatic foramen before running superiorly above pisiformis into the gluteal region

11

Pathway of the iliolumbar artery

Passes superiorly out of the pelvis, runs laterally to the psi as muscle

12

What is the pathway of the lateral sacral artery?

Runs lateral to the anterior sacral foramina, supplying structures surrounding it

13

What is the pathway of the obturator artery?

Runs along the lateral pelvic wall along with the obturator artery and vein, it then passes through the obturator foramen into the thigh

14

What is the pathway of the inferior gluteal artery?

Exits the pelvis through the inferior part of the greater sciatic foramina, passing inferior to piriformis into the gluteal region

15

What arteries enter the pelvic cavity?

Both internal iliac arteries
Both gonadal arteries
Median sacral artery
Superior rectal artery

16

What nerves pass through the lateral border of psoas?

Iliohypogastric
Ilioinguinal
Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
Femoral nerve

17

What nerves pass through the medial border of psoas?

Obturator nerve
Lumbosacral trunk
Accessory obturator nerve

18

What nerves pass through the anterior border of psoas?

Genitofemoral nerve

19

What are the main branches of the external iliac artery?

Inferior epigastric
Deep circumflex iliac
Femoral artery

20

What are the branches of the femoral artery?

Superficial epigastric artery
Superficial circumflex iliac artery
Superficial external pudendal artery
Deep external pudendal arteries

21

What is the pathway of the femoral artery?

Continuation of the external iliac artery at the inferior border of the inguinal ligament, passes through the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath, deep to the fascia lata and adjacent to psoas and pectineus muscles

22

What is another name for the adductor canal?

Hunters canal

23

What is the pathway of the popliteal artery?

Continuation of the femoral artery at the adductor hiatus, passes inferiorlaterally through the popliteal fossa, ends at the inferior border of popliteus by dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries

24

What are the branches of the popliteal artery?

Medial and lateral superior genicular arteries
Middle genicular artery
Medial and lateral inferior genicular arteries
(These all form genicular anastomoses)

25

What is the pathway of the small saphenous vein?

Travels between the heads of gastrocs, enters the popliteal fossa, pierces the deep fascia and the drains into the popliteal vein

26

What are the contents of the anterior compartment of the leg?

Anterior tibial artery and vein
Deep fibular nerve
Tibial is anterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
Fibularis tertius

27

What is the superior extensor retinaculum of the leg?

A band of deep fascia that holds down the tendons of the anterior compartment of the leg and prevents them from bow stringing

Passes from the fibula to the tibia, proximal to the malleoli, it is pierced by tibialis anterior tendon and invaginates to form a continuous synovial sheath

28

What is the inferior extensor retinaculum?

A y shaped thickening of fascia inferior to the superficial extensor retinaculum. It loops around the tendons of EDL and FT to share a common synovial sheath

Attaches from the medial malleolus and navicular and plantar app neurosis medially and to the calcaneus medially

29

What is the extensor expansion?

A membranous structure over the dorsal aspect of each proximal phalanx, divides into 2 lateral slips and a central slip.
The two lateral slips insert into e base of the distal phalanx
The central slip inserts into the base of the middle phalanx

30

What are the structures of the anterior ankle from medial to lateral?

Remember Tom Has Absolutely No Determination as a mnemonic
Tibial is anterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Anterior tibial artery
Deep fibular nerve
Extensor digitorum longus

31

What are the branches of the dorsalis pedis artery?

Lateral tarsal artery
Arcuate artery
Deep plantar artery
1st dorsal metatarsal artery

32

What is the pathway of the dorsalis pedis artery?

Passes deep to inferior extensor retinaculum between the tendons of EHL and EDL, at the 1stmetatarsal cleft it divides into 1stdorsal metatarsal artery and deep plantar artery

33

What is the pathway of the anterior tibial artery?

Passes through the superior Interosseus hiatus, descends on the anterior surface of the Interosseus membrane, between tib ant and EDL, passes deep to extensor retinaculum becoming the dorsalis pedis artery

34

What is the pathway of hue he posterior tibial artery?

Begins at the distal portion of popliteus as a branch of the popliteal artery
Passes deep psoas and runs inferno medially over tibial is posterior
Runs posterior to the medial malleolus and deep to the flexor retinaculum where it enters the foot

35

What are the branches of the posterior tibial artery?

Circumflex fibular artery
Fibular artery
Nutrient artery of the tibia
Medial malleolar branch

36

How is the great saphenous vein formed and where does it run?

Formed by the union of the dorsal vein of the great toe and the dorsal venous arch, runs anterior to the medial malleolus, posterior to the medial condyle of the knee before moving superb medially through the saphenous opening, emptying into the femoral vein

37

How is the small saphenous vein formed and where does it run?

Formed by the union of the dorsal vein of the little toe and the dorsal venous arch,
It runs posterior to the lateral malleolus and runs between the two heads of gastrocs, it empties into the popliteal vein

38

What are the borders and contents of the popliteal fossa?

Superomedial border:
Biceps femoris
Superolateral border:
Semitendonosis and semimembranosis
Inferomedial border:
Medial head of gastrocnemius
Inferolateral border:
Lateral head of gastrocnemius
Roof:
Skin and fascia
Floor:
Popliteal ligament, popliteus, popliteal surface of the femur

Contents:
Popliteal artery and vein
Common fibular nerve
Tibial nerve
Terminal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
Small saphenous vein
Popliteal lymph nodes and vessels
Fat

39

What are the borders and content of the femoral triangle?

Medial border:
Adductor longus
Lateral border:
Sartorious
Base:
Inguinal ligament
Floor:
Iliopsoas and pectineus
Roof:
Fascia lata and cribriform fascia, subcutaneous tissue and skin
Apex:
Formed by the junction of adductor longus and sartorious, making the adductor canal

Contents:
Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Femoral nerve
Great saphenous vein
Femoral sheath and it's contents
Deep inguinal lymph node and vessels
Saphenous opening

40

What four structures pass through the adductor canal?

Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Saphenous nerve
Nerve to vast us medialis

41

How is the adductor hiatus formed?

In the tendon of adductor Magnus

42

What are the compartments of the retroinguinal space, what exists in these compartments and how is it formed?

Contains a vascular and muscular compartment, these are separated by the iliopectineal arch, which is a thickening of the psoas fascia

Muscular compartment contents:
Iliacus
Psoas
Femoral nerve

Vascular compartment:
Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Lymphatic a

43

What are the walls of the inguinal canal and what is its contents?

Anterior:
Aponeurosis of external oblique
Posterior wall:
Transversalis fascia
Roof:
Formed by arching fibres of transverse abdominis, and internal oblique, Transversalis fascia
Floor:
Inguinal ligament, reinforced by the lacunar ligament

Contents:
Blood vessels, lymph vessels and the ilioinguinal nerve
Males: spermatic chord
Females:
Round ligament of the uterus

44

Ligaments of the hip

Iliofemoral (attaches from the AIIS to the intertrocahanteric line)
Pubofemoral (attaches from the obturator crest to the iliofemoral ligament)
Ischiofemoral (attaches from the ischial part of the acetabular rim to the neck of the femur)

45

What is the function of the articulate capsule of the hip?

Is a loose, fibrous capsule that helps with free movement of the hip

46

What kind of joint is the hip joint and what movements occur here?

Is a multi axial, synovial ball and socket joint, allows for ;
Flexion and extension
Abduction and adduction
Internal and external rotation
Circumduction

47

What are the attachments of the knee joint capsule?

Superiorly:
Femur
Inferiorly:
Articulate margins of the tibia
Anteriorly:
Sides of the patella and patella ligament

48

What are the ligaments of the knee?

Fibular collateral lig
Tibial collateral lig
Patella lig
Oblique popliteal lig
Arcuate popliteal lig
Cruciate ligs (ACL, PCL)
Menisci


49

What is the function of the oblique popliteal ligament and what is it made of?

Is an expansion of semimembranosis tendon, reinforces the joint capsule posteriorly and attaches from the medial tibial condyle to the lateral femoral condyle

50

How does the knee lock?

Femur medially rotates on the tibia
Stability becomes increased, muscle contraction decreases
Unlocks when popliteus laterally rotates femur 5 degrees

51

What type of joint is the proximal, superior tibiofibular joint?

Plane type synovial joint, allow for anterior and posterior movements during dorsi and plantar flexion of the foot

52

What type of joint is the distal tibio-fibular joint?

It is a fibrous joint, allows for anterior and posterior movements during dorsi and plantar flexion of the foot

53

What muscles are in the different layers of the foot?

First layer:
Abductor hallucis
Flexor digitorum brevis
Abductor digitorum brevis

Second layer:
Lubricals
Quadratus plantae

Third layer:
Adductor hallucis
Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor digits mining brevis

Fourth layer:
Dorsal and plantar Interossei

54

What are the compartments of the foot and what muscles sure in each of them?

Medial, central, lateral, Interosseus and dorsal

Medial:
Abductor hallucis
Flexor hallucis brevis
Tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Medial plantar nerves and vessels

Central:
Flexor digitorum brevis
Flexor digitorum longus tendons
Quadratic plantae
Adductor hallucis
Tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Lateral plantar nerves and vessels

Lateral compartment:
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Interosseus compartment:
Metatarsals
Dorsal and plantar Interosseus muscles
Deep plantar and metatarsal vessels

Dorsal compartment:
Extensor hallucis brevis
Extensor digitorum brevis
Neurovascular structures of the dorsum of the foot

55

What is the plantar fascia and what does it join up with?

It is the fascia of the sole and joins up with the medial and lateral plantar fascia with the dorsal fascia

It makes up the plantar aponeurosis which is a thickening in the central part of the plantar fascia, it assists in maintaining the longitudinal arches

The plantar aponeurosis attaches to the calcaneus adjoins up with the fibrous sheaths of the 5 digits

56

What is the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligaments function?

The spring ligament arises from the Sustentaculum tali to the navicular, it helps to support the head of the talus in the TCN joint, it also maintains the longitudinal arches of the foot

57

What are the three parts of the foot and what is each made up of?

The hind foot, the mid foot and the forefoot

Hind foot:
Calcaneus and talus

Mid foot:
Cuboid, navicular and cuneiforms

Forefoot:
Metatarsals and phalanges

58

What are the arches of the foot and what bones fall in them?

Medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch and the transverse arch

Medial longitudinal arch:
Calcaneus
Talus
Navicular
Cuneiforms
Metatarsals 1-3
Phalanges of digits 1-3

Lateral longitudinal arch
Calcaneus
Cuboid
Metatarsals 4-5
Phalanges of digits 4-5

Transverse arch:
Cuboid
Cuneiforms

59

What is the angle of inclination and what is a norm for this angle?

The angle which is formed between the union of the neck of the femur and the shaft. Usually between 115-140 degrees. The norm value for the angle of inclination is 126 degrees.

It's orientation allows it to bring the femur medially towards the femur, it also allows the head of the femur to sit in the acetabulum better

60

What is the Q angle and what is a normal value for the Q angle?

The Q angle is the angle between the femur and tibia of the knee, it is formed between the line from the ASIS to the mid patella and from the mid patella to the tibial tuberosity

It is usually 13 degrees in men and 18 degrees in women

61

What are perforating veins and where are they found?

Perforating veins are veins that move blood from the superficial layers to the deep. They perforate deep fascia to assist with venous return. They have valves within them that prevent back flow of blood and contract with muscles to improve venous return. They are found in the deep fascia

62

What is the pathway of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve?

Passes through the greater sciatic foramen, runs inferiorly to piriformis, it then decends under gluteus maximus. It then decends down the posterior thigh beneath the fascia lata. It then pierces fascia posterior to the knee

63

What is the pathway of the obturator nerve?

Ventral rami of l2-l4, passes the medial border of psoas, decends inferiorly throug the pelvis, enters the obturator canal, splits into anterior and posterior divisions

The anterior division passes between adductor longus and adductor brevis, it then pierces the fascia lata to become the cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve

The posterior division decends through obturator externals, passing anterior to adductor Magnus