Important topics for the axial and appendicular skeleton Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy > Important topics for the axial and appendicular skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Important topics for the axial and appendicular skeleton Deck (30):
1

How many cranial bones are there?

8

2

How many facial bones are there?

14

3

What is the advantage of knitted conformation for sutures?

More surface area for connection
Prevents separation of bones in the advent of head trauma

4

What is a soft spot?

Babies aren't born with cranial bones. Have a soft spot instead. Cranial bones will grow around it.
Soft spot allows for:
- brain expansion
- ease of passage through birth canal

5

When do cranial bones form?

1 year

6

What are the different sutures? Point to them on youself.

Squamous suture - occurs where each parietal bone meets a temporal bone inferiorly
Lambdoid suture - occurs where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly
Coronal suture - located where parietal bones meet the frontal bone
Sagittal suture - occurs where the parietal bones meet superiorly
Occipitomastoid suture - occurs where temporal bones meet the occipital bone

7

What do the facial bones function to do?

Protect delicate sense organs
Form framework of face
Anchor the muscles of the face
Hold the teeth

8

Which facial bone is the largest and strongest?

Mandible

9

If you have temporomandibular joint inflammation, what is the issue?

Bursa and actual joint are inflammed

10

Describe the vertebral column.
How many bones compose it?
What is its function?

26 bones in adult
Transmit weight of trunk to lower limbs
Protect spinal cord
Serves as attachment sites for muscles of the neck and back

11

What are the different parts of the vertebral column?

7 cervical vertebrae
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
Sacrum (5 fused)
Coccyx (4 fused)

12

Why is the vertebral column curved?

Increased flexibility
dissipation of force
strength
Allows head to balance directly over pelvis
max weight distribution

13

What are primary curves?

Baby starts C-shaped, only has primary curves = thoracic and sacral, formed during fetal development.

14

What are secondary curves?

Baby holds head up - cervical (4 months)
Walk and stand up - 1 year; lumbar

15

Intervertebral discs
Cushion-like pads between _________
Act as _______-absorbers
Composed about ___ of height of vertebral column
Composed of _______ ______ and ______ _______

Vertebrae
shock
25%
anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus

16

What is the nucleus pulposus?

Gelatinous inner sphere of intervertebral disc
Enables spine to absorb compressive stresses

17

What is the anulus fibrosus?

Outer collar of ligaments and fibrocartilage
contains the nucleus pulposus
Functions:
- bind vertebrae together
-resist tension on the spine
- absorb compressive forces

18

What leaves during compression of the spine?

Water

19

What is the importance of the ligaments of the spine?

Prevents too much movement of the vertebral column.
Ligaments prevent hyperextension and aid in recoiling to original shape.
Prevent damage to spinal cord and nerves.

20

What is a herniated disc?
Cause?
Contributing factor?

Nucleus pulposus loses cushioning properties or anulus fibrosus weakens.
Age is a contributing factor.
May be caused by trauma to the spine

21

How are herniated discs painful?
How can this issue be rectified?

Different grades.
Press on nerves, kill off nervous tissue supplying muscle.
Surgery can realign or, if bad enough, fuse vertebrae/use synthetics

22

What does fusion of vertebrae cause?

Reduced range of motion

23

What is the spinal canal?

All the vertebral foramen together

24

What are the intervertebral foramen formed by and, what purpose do they serve?

Formed by the superior and inferior vertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae.
These function to form holes for nerves and blood vessels to go through.

25

Which vertebrae are typical cervical vertebrae?

C3-C7

26

Why are the cervical vertebrae the smallest and lightest vertebrae?

Only have to bear the weight of the skull, rather than that of most of the body.

27

What are basic characteristics of cervical vertebrae?

Spinous process short and bifid (except C7)
Vertebral foramen - large and triangular
Transverse processes contain transverse foramina
Superior articular facets face superposteriorly

28

Atlas
Lacks a ____ and ______ process
Supports the skull
- ______ articular _____ receive the ______ condyles
Allows _____ and _____ of the neck
- _____ the head ___

lacks a body and spinous process
supports the skull
- superior articular facets receive the occipital condyles
Allows flexion and extension of the neck
i.e. nodding the head yes

29

Axis
Comparatively to atlas, it has a _____ and _____ ______
Has the _____ which projects ________
Dens acts as a pivot for rotation of atlas, allows which movement?

Body and spinous process
Dens - superiorly

"No" movement of head

30

Thoracic vertebrae:
Larger and stronger _____ than cervical
______ processes are long and point ______.
Longer ______ process than cervical vertebrae
Vertebral foramen are _______.

body
spinous, inferiorly
transverse
circular