Incorrect Practice MCAT Q's Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Incorrect Practice MCAT Q's Deck (102):
1

Amide

Carboxylic acid bound to N

2

Where does the isotope go in isotope substitution experiments

On the compound in which the isotope would not have to undergo a reaction prior to the experimental reaction

3

Lens distance formula

1/o + 1/i = 1/f = Strength

4

Lens height formula

h1/h2 = d1/d2

5

Index of refraction formulas (2)

n1sin(theta)1 = n2sin(theta)2 AND n = c/v

6

Energy of a Photon formula

E = hf = hc/wavelength

7

Micelle

An aggregate of a compound forming a solid
- intermolecular forces

8

How many sigma and pi bonds in an octahedral?

6 sigma, 0 pi

9

Power formula and units

P = W/t, P = mgh/t (Watts, J/s, (kg*m^2)/s^3 = ft*lb/s

10

Lipase

Enzyme used to break down fatty acids via hydrolysis

11

Lyase

Enzyme used to split bonds w/o water

12

What does this notation generally refer to L113Y?

Amino acid substitution
(Leucine replaced by Tyrosine)

13

Gamma rays are made of what?

Photons

14

If Metal 1 and M1+ forms a solid over Metal 2 and M2+ which metal has the greater reduction potential?

Metal 1 has a greater reduction potential. Therefore any Ox/Red reaction Metal 2 can undergo Metal 1 can as well

15

Chemiosmosis

Movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane down gradient (no ATP)

16

lipid rafts

region of cell membrane with a high concentration of cholesterol and phosphosphingolipids

17

Where are proteins cleaved?

Endomembrane system

18

Spreading effect

Activation of a concept leads to activation of all concepts related to it
- can result in false memories
- greater affect on adults with greater knowledge

19

Piagets Theories of Cognitive Development

1. Sensorimotor (0-2) - object permanence
2. Preoperational (2-7) - imagination
3. Concrete operational (7-11) - consistency
4. Formal operation (11+) - critical thinking

20

General adaption principle

People respond similarly to a variety of different stressors
4 stages: homeostasis, alarm, resistance, exhaustion

21

Social facilitation

Tendency of people to react differently in presence of audience

22

What theory is closely related with conditioning

Behaviorist

23

Nativist theory

There is an innate ability for humans to develop language

24

Linguistic relativity (Sapir-Whorf)

Language and structure affects perception

25

How many chunks of information can the working memory hold?

5-9 (7 plus or minus 2)

26

Conflict Theory

People fight for limited resources and power
- unequal separation

27

What is the difference between Caste and Class

Caste systems do not allow social mobility and is dependent on birthright not necessarily wealth

28

Erikson's Stages of Psychological Development

1. Trust v. Mistrust
2. Autonomy v. Shame
3. Initiative v. Guilt
4. Industry v. Inferiority
5. Ego identity v. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy v. Isolation
7. Generosity v. Stagnancy
8. Integrity v. Despair

29

Counterculture

A subculture where their values differ from the mainstream culture usually in opposition

30

Culture lag

Non-material culture (values) takes time to catch up to changes in material culture (technology) causing problems

31

Distal stimuli

The object itself

32

Proximal stimuli

The stimulus directly affecting sensory receptors

33

Partial report technique

Cued recall of a part of a list is very accurate unlike recall of the whole list

34

Word association testing

First word that comes to mind test

35

Operational span testing

Tests working memory by solving a handful of problems and performing tasks

36

Psychophysical Test

Tests perception of an object in relation to their actual physical properties

37

Spacing Effect

Learning is optimized when studying is spread out over a larger period of time

38

How is motivational state typically determined (operational definition)

By negative punishment

39

Life-course approach

Something earlier in a person's life can affect them later on

40

Social construct

Perception created by society
i.e. Illness is the result of society viewing someone as sick
Mostly hippy shit...

41

Proactive interferance

Old memory affecting retrieval of new memory

42

Retroactive interferance

New memory affecting retrieval of old memory

43

Social capital

The social network someone has
- In this aspect a person rich with social capital has a large social network

44

Cultural capital

The internal assets someone has (knowledge, skills, behavior)

45

Intersectionality

A person's identity affects social class

46

Looking-glass self

A person's self-concept is created by how other's perceive you
- internalization of an outward quality

47

CT scans

Uses X-rays to create cross-sectional images
- generally better for harder tissues

48

PET scans

Measures blood flow in brain to indicate activity

49

MRI

Uses magnetic radiation to create cross-sectional images
- clearer image for soft tissues compared to CT

50

fMRI

Measures blood flow in brain to indicate activity
- clearer image than PET

51

Limbic system

Regulates in basic emotions

52

Nucleus Accumbens

Participates in reward, pleasure, addiction

53

Interposition

Allows for depth analysis due to overlap of images

54

Accomodation

New information causes modifications of existing schema (categories) rather than modification of the information to fit a schema

55

Place theory

Frequency detection is a result of stimulation of various regions of the basilar membrane

56

Counterbalancing method

Used to ensure that the order of stimuli presented does not affect dependent variable

57

Neuroleptics

Drug used to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia but worsens negative symptoms

58

Activation-synthesis model

Dreams occur as a result of the brain attempting to interpret random signals

59

Long-term potentiation

Repeated activation of a synapse causes it to strengthen

60

Cognitive dissonance theory

People are more likely to change their attitudes than their behavior during cognitive dissonance

61

The generalized other

The condition in which a person attempts to imagine what others expect of them

62

Manifest function

The intended function/recognition of an action

63

Latent function

the unintended function/recognition of an action

64

Thomas theorem

Interpretation of a situation leads to action
- Perception = Reality

65

Hawthorne Effect

A person's behavior changes when they know they are being observed
- like social facilitation but conscious adjustment instead of subconscious

66

What are the three parts to Mcdonaldization

1. Efficiency
2. Uniformity
3. Improved technology

67

Kin Selection

Natural Selection in behavior to protect those who can pass on genes (altruistic behavior)

68

Affect Heuristic

Judgement based on emotion

69

Sexual Dimorphism

The degree of difference between males and females
- Low difference = monogamy

70

Informative Pressure

Conformative pressure due to person seeming to be more informed

71

T-test (paired, unpaired)

Compares differences in means
- paired = between data coming from the same x variable

72

Iron Cage (Max Weber)

Individuals feel trapped by social institutions in society

73

Depth of Processing

Types of attention given to a words during encoding

74

Organization

A collective group with clear membership in pursuit of a common goal

75

Anomie

A lack of social norms causing an individual to feel disconnected from society

76

Frustration-agression hypothesis

Increased frustration leads to increased aggression
- frustration can be increased by hinderance from a goal

77

World Systems theory

Core nations - developed economy, strong governments and institutions
Periphery nations - underdeveloped economy, ....

78

Where are rods densely located?

Periphery of retina

79

Where are cones densely located?

Fovea

80

Sublimation

A defense mechanism in which a person channels their emotions into constructive activity

81

Displacement

A defense mechanism in which a person channels their aggression onto another person/object

82

Projection

A defense mechanism in which a person channels their emotions onto another person/object

83

Reaction formation

Portraying an opposite emotion towards a person

84

Dependency Ratio

# of economically dependent members of society : # of economically product members of society

85

Source monitoring error

Memory error in which people attribute the memory to a different source than it actually came from

86

Dissociative disorder

Disconnection from identity in order to escape from reality
- amnesia of the particular event

87

Marginal Poverty

Poverty due to lack of stable employment

88

Dispositional Attribution (of behavior)

Belief that a persons behavior is the result of internal qualities

89

Gentrification

Remodeling of an area in order to attract wealthier residents

90

Escape Learning

An animal's ability to leave a painful stimuli
- not avoid: avoidance learning

91

Shaping

Training to do a series of simple tasks in order to learn a difficult task

92

Neuroticism (Big Five)

Measure of how anxious/negative a person is

93

Reproductive memory

Recall of information without modfication

94

Reconstructive memory

Recall of information modified by other factors such as perception

95

Eidetic memory

Photographic memory - extremely vivid memory of an image

96

Elaboration likelihood

Central and peripheral route processing
- Central = careful analysis of merit
- peripheral = more associated with feelings toward stimuli

97

Dichotic listening

Application of 2 different signals to each ear

98

Social Solidarity

Unification of society as a result of mutual beliefs
- part of Functionalism

99

Structural mobility

Vertical mobility as a result of changes in social stratification as opposed to the individual

100

Self-verification

People want others to see them as they see themselves

101

Serotonin Function

Affects emotions (anger/aggression), appetite, and some other homeostatic effects

102

Secularization

Reduced influence of religion due to decreased participation