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Flashcards in india Deck (29):
1

drum

sound of creation, beat of life, damaru

2

fire in palm of upper left hand

ability to destroy

3

arm put out in gesture of an elephant

strength

4

crown

the Himalayas

5

hair

the Ganges river

6

circle

samsara, cycle of reincarnation

7

raised left leg

moksha, liberation from the cycle

8

flames around the circle

destruction of samsara (cycle of reincarnation)

9

eyes

lotus-petal shaped eyes

10

lotus

grows out of murky pond water, impurity, and out of it comes a beautiful flower that is symbolic of spiritual purity and perfection, Shiva is standing on a lotus pedestal

11

maya (dwarf which is stomped upon)

illusions which distract us from escaping samsara (cycle of reincarnation) such as greed, etc.

12

how is Shiva Nataraja not limited by human figure?

Shiva is depicted with four arms and is idealized and composed of symbols

13

Brahma

the Creator of the Universe

14

Vishnu

the Preserver

15

avatars of vishnu

Krishna (the divine lover), Rama (symbol of loyalty and obedience), and Buddha

16

Shiva

the Destroyer

17

Devi

represents the essence of the female power

18

Hinduism

-no single founder or prophet,
-no single holy books
-Worship is based on one-on-one relationship

19

dancing celestial

India, 12th Century, sandstone, high relief, idealized, not limited by human proportions, feminine and serene smile

20

what is the symbolism in the dancing celestial?

eyes in shape of lotus (spiritual purity), eyebrows in shape of archer's bow, torso in shape of damaru (creation), arm in shape of long, edible root (idealized)

21

parvati

10th century, India, Copper Alloy

22

describe parvati

consort and wife of Shiva, accompanied by work of Shiva Nataraja, represents ideal wife and mother, torso in shape of damaru, holds lotus, elongated arm in shape of edible root (idealized)

23

the goddess Durga killing the buffalo demon, Mahisha

12th century, India
-a buffalo demon was going to destroy the world, so Shiva and the other male gods tried to destroy it, but failed. They gave their powers to the goddess Devi, who became Durga and grew multiple arms and slew the demon.
-Durga is depicted standing on demon coming out of buffalo, and there are small versions of her in homes

24

1st noble truth

life is abundant in suffering and despair

25

2nd noble truth

the cause of the suffering is greed for temporary, frivolous pleasures

26

3rd noble truth

end suffering through ending desire

27

4th noble truth

to overcome the desires and achieve enlightenment, follow the Middle Way between desires and denial

28

stupas

sacred mounds said to contain relics

29

nirvana

the state of achieving enlightenment