Industrial and Commercial Practice Flashcards Preview

Product Design A2 > Industrial and Commercial Practice > Flashcards

Flashcards in Industrial and Commercial Practice Deck (48):
1

How do computers in manufacturing improve quality?

Sensors Scan work, and compare data to specification
They make checks faster and come accurately
feedback leads to discovery of an issue
reduces error and waste

2

What is AI

Computers that can mimic human characteristics
It can learn and adapt
It can process large amounts of information

3

What does a Oval represent in a flow chart

the start or end

4

what does a parallelogram represent in a flow chart?

Input and outputs

5

Why does a rectangle represent in a flow chart?

A process

6

What does a diamond represent in a flowchart?

A decision

7

How is biopol produced?

Bacteria is added
Fermentation
Material collected from cells and separated
Material is refined into a white powder, which is subsequently polymerised

8

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Biopol?

Advantages:
Biodegradable
Quickly biodegrades
Takes up less land fill space
Sustainable and renewable
Doesn't require a lot of energy

Disadvantages:
More expensive to produce
Low acid resistance
Not as strong as other plastics
Slow to produce

9

What is Market analysis

Market analysis is when a company investigates a market to decide future activates
Can be used to make a wide range of activities (demand for a product)
It is used to make decisions on everything from advertisement to capital outlay
It often is conducted via a survey that is scanned and compiled by a computer

10

Advantages and Disadvantages of Market Analysis

Advantages:
Can work out target market, and demand for a product, so the right amount can be made maximising profit
Allows for better marketing
Stops companies from spending time and money developing unwanted products

Disadvantages:
Getting information wrong could be catastrophic wasting a lot of money
Expensive to carry out
Delay product release, increasing lead time

11

What is production Scheduling and Logistics

A computer system that plans manufacturing, task sequencing and resources

If there are small issues or hiccups in the process the system can sort them out

By producing a schedule the company can tell whether a delivery request can be fulfilled

12

Advantages and Disadvantages of production Scheduling and Logistics

Advantages:
Reduce employee procrastination
Reduces delays and bottle necks
Allows for easier tracking of products by customers
Reduces lead time

Disadvantages:
Expensive to set up
reduces flexibility
Cannot foresee all errors or problems

13

What is specification development

When computer software is used to help produce a specification using information such as anthropometrics, material limitations, and market research, and uses this information to decide on components required, materials, measurements etc.

14

Advantages and Disadvantages of Specification development

Advantages:
Reduced Lead time
Information is stored on a computer, therefore people can easily access it if they need it
Factors in information like anthropometrics
All factors can be considered
Multiple people can work on the specification

Disadvantages:
Expensive to set up
Data may go out of date
May not include the most modern technologies and materials

15

What is EPOS, and how does it work?

A point of sale doesn’t update automatically, whereas a EPOS system does

EPOS systems allow for faster supply and delivery of products. They allow for Improved tracking and automatic restocking and Improve overall efficiency

They work using barcodes and databases to track products sales and stock

16

What are the advantages and disadvantages of EPOS?

Advantages:
It saves people checking stock and provides a very quick service for customers Generates useful data, like what you and when you sold it
Employee work rate can be recorded and there performance can be analysed, and product lines can be analyse
Allows company to quicker react to market demand
Improved tracking of products, and reduces over ordering
Self-checkout can be used
Bills can be itemized, reducing chances of error
Store prices and calculates automatically
It can read credit cards
Modernise processes, and improve marketing decisions, based on sales data
Allows special offers to be automatically applied

Disadvantages:
Expensive to install
Requires regular maintenance
The software needs updated to maintain a competitive edge against rivals
More technical skills
Infrastructure changes

17

Advantages and disadvantages of email

Advantages:
Easy to set up and use
Multiple people can be sent one email
Emails can be drafted and saved
Files can be attached and encrypted
Instant communication
People don’t have to be present

Disadvantages:
Spam and viruses
Internet access can be poor
Inboxes fill up quickly
Peoples addresses can change when they move jobs
Need an internet enabled device and exact email address
File size limitation

18

Advantages and Disadvantages of EDI

Advantages:
Unlimited file size
Speeds up invoicing process
Reduces labour costs as paperwork doesn't need sorted
Opens up customers to everyone with EDI
Totally secure way of sending information
Creates a paperless company

Disadvantages:
Expensive to set up
Different versions in use may cause difficulty
Limits trade to only those with EDI

19

Advantages and Disadvantages of Lan

Advantages:
Very fast data transfer
Network versions of software can be bought to be shared, saving money
Software can be installed once and work across all of the computers
Printers and scanners can be shared, saving money
Email across a LAN improves communication
Files can be accessed from anywhere within the LAN
People can collaborate using work group software

Disadvantages:
Viruses can easily spread across the network
Queues for printers and scanners may form
if the system fails everyones files are lost

20

Advantages and disadvantages of Internet

Advantages:
Truly global network
Vast amounts of information available
Easy communication (email, social network)
Online shopping, and booking and banking
Search engines simplify
Fast and reliable

Disadvantages:
Connection can be poor
Virus and spam
Identity theft and theft of credit card details

21

Advantages and Disadvantages of Video Conferencing

Advantages:
Don't need to travel saving time and money and reducing carbon footprint
Can screen share, or show physical items
Multiple people can join in
Can see body language unlike a phone call

Disadvantages:
Internet access can be unreliable
People may be camera shy, and camera may not be able to see all members in a room
Syncing time zones may be difficult

22

ISDN advantages and disadvantages

Advantages:
Doesn't require new infrastructure
Can be set up at a lower cost then broadband
Allows rural areas to be connected

Disadvantages:
Much slower the broadband
Cant use telephone and internet at the same time

23

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Marketing

Advantages:
World wide reach
Increased company profile world wide
Detailed knowledge of customer and market trends thanks to data collected
Less expensive then traditional magazine and TV ads
Adds can be targeted to only those who will be interested

Disadvantages:
Difficult to "discover" websites without other forms of advertising
Slow internet connection could cause difficulty for some
Sone markets may not be online (older)

24

Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic engineering of woods

Advantages:
Aids resistance of trees to disease
Produces trees with increased growth rate
Better forest management which decreases deforestation

Disadvantages:
Long Term side effects are not yet apparent
Concerns with the escape of modified genes into the ecosystem
Development of resistance in insects and diseases
Rapid growth causing more intensive rotations increasing water demands and reducing nutrient recycling

25

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biodegradable polymers

Advantages:
Fully degradable in ideal conditions (sun, moisture, oxygen)
Reduced time in landfill, and reduced harmful effects
Starch based carbon is already in the ecosystem, therefore no carbon is added to the environment in its lifecycle

Disadvantages:
Degradation of some plastics emits carbon dioxide, contributing to global warming
Damages recycled plastic when mixed, reducing its value
Expensive to buy and not widely available
Not as energy efficient to produce as synthetic polymers

26

Applications of Biodegradable polymers

Packaging
Disposable food utensils and dishes
Plastic wrap for foods
Paper and board coatings
Slow release pesticides
Pharmaceuticals (e.g. pill coatings)
Natural textiles for fashion industry

27

What is a plasticiser polymer additive and what are its uses?

Plasticisers are used to make plastics softer and more flexible. Most common are Phthalates which are naturally occurring and biodegradable.

They can be used for:
for use coating cables
Improving injection moulding as they make the plastic flow smoother
tubing and hose products
flooring wall-coverings
seals

28

What is a filler polymer additive and what are its uses?

Used to increase the bulk of the plastic

Used to:
Save money
Reduce weight

29

What is a Fibre polymer additive?

Increases the strength and the stiffness of plastic Carbon Fibre

30

What are the different types of Stabiliser polymer additive, and what are there uses?

Stabilisers slow down the deterioration process of plastic

Heat Stabilisers: Put into plastics to prevent the plastic from deteriorating during the manufacturing processes (e.g. injection moulding)

Light Stabilisers: UV light can degrade plastics, for products designed for use in sunny areas, light stabilisers are added to increase their longevity

Biostabilisers: Microorganisms can breakdown plastics causing a change in aesthetics or effected mechanical properties, Biostabilisers can be added to reduce the impact. Used for outdoor and garden products

31

What is a Foamant polymer additive, and what are its uses?

Foamants are added to plastics to increase their volume and make them more elastic (springy) by trapping air pockets within the cells of the plastic, this also makes them buoyant. Used for life preservers, pool toys and sailing equipment

32

What is wood lamination

Lamination is when thin layers of a material are glued together, the most common type of laminated material is plywood
Plywood is made up of layers of veneer glued together using epoxy resins so the grain structure is always at 90 to the surrounding layers, which makes the material very strong and stable
Other wood laminates include block-board and lamin-board

33

What are the advantages and disadvantages of wood lamination

Advantages:
Economic to use, little wastage
Can Be used as a base materials that’s veneered
Strong
Comes in Large Sheets
Can Be Curved into shape
Only need to use expensive wood on top layer
Stable
Wide range of surfaces and designs

Disadvantages:
Poor Surface Finish
Edges aren’t always good
Visible Flaws: The finished material will have knots in it which aren’t always appealing
The layers can split apart when wet or damp
Slow and expensive for mass
Specialised Fixing

34

How does a barcode work?

The bar code doesn’t contain the price, only the products unique ID

It works by:
1. Products bar code is scanned, and computer searches though database to find the product
2. The price is sent to the till and added to the bill
3. The computer reduces the stock by one
4. If the level falls below a set level, its automatically reordered

35

Why genetic engineer woods?

Genetic engineering can be used to change the properties of wood
Greater demands are put on the wood industry increase wood production and turnover
Genetic engineering is allows trees to be faster growing, more resistant to temperatures and climate change, however there are concerns with the impact to ecosystems and the long term side effects

36

Advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering woods?

Advantages:
Aids resistance of trees to disease
Produces trees with increased growth rate
Better forest management which decreases deforestation

Disadvantages:
Long Term side effects are not yet apparent
Concerns with the escape of modified genes into the ecosystem
Development of resistance in insects and diseases
Rapid growth causing more intensive rotations increasing water demands and reducing nutrient recycling

37

Applications of biodegradable polymers

Packaging
Disposable food utensils and dishes
Plastic wrap for foods
Paper and board coatings
Slow release pesticides
Pharmaceuticals (e.g. pill coatings)
Natural textiles for fashion industry

38

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biodegradable polymers

Advantages:
Fully degradable in ideal conditions (sun, moisture, oxygen)
Reduced time in landfill, and reduced harmful effects
Starch based carbon is already in the ecosystem, therefore no carbon is added to the environment in its lifecycle

Disadvantages:
Degradation of some plastics emits carbon dioxide, contributing to global warming
Damages recycled plastic when mixed, reducing its value
Expensive to buy and not widely available
Not as energy efficient to produce as synthetic polymers

39

What are totally recyclable materials

Most materials (excluding metals) once recycled lose their quality, and can only be used for less demanding tasks
Aluminium doesn’t biodegrade at all, so it can be easily salvaged, melted down, and used again
Almost all metals can be recycled into a high quality usable material
Recycling metals is good for the environment saving energy and reducing CO2 emission

40

What are the issues relating to local and global production?

Global economy
Quality of life
Employment
Environment
Impact on Locals

41

Advantages and disadvantages of online shopping

Advantages:
Cost saving as shops and sales staff aren't needed
Faster processing of orders
Consumers can access a wide range of goods and services
More product information available
Comparison websites allow for better deals
Increased convenience for shoppers
24/7
Data can be collected

Disadvantages:
Security concerns for banking details
Personal information may be shared without permission
Difficult to "discover" websites without other forms of advertising
Difficulty navigating complex websites
Spread of junk emails, and spam
Can see physical product
Risk of scams and viruses

42

How does a developing country benefit from a TNC manufacturing there

Employment
Training and Education
Wealth/Standard of Living
Infrastructure
Tax/Foreign Currency
New technology into the country

43

How does a TNC benefit from moving manufacturing to a developing country

Low labour costs and low land costs, reduces manufacturing costs - competitive edge
Less legislation, so can cut counters with waste, H&S and emissions
Become a political influence as such a large employer

44

How does JIT lead to lean manufacturing

Reduces storage space, as products delivered on time when needed
No time wasted, less production delays
Minimal movement of materials and components saving energy
No wastage/excess components or materials
Less faulty products due to improved QA
No used/wasted equipment as its never idle

45

How does CIM effect nature of jobs and employment

Reduced manual work
Automation - Unemployment
Safety
CAD and Cam skills needed
Retraining to keep up with new technology
Need to be more flexible
Numeracy and literacy skills

46

Define Carbon Offsetting

Introduction of clean technologies/Carbon reduction programs to reducer emissions

47

Draw a flow chart for a closed loop system

( Start )
|
/ Input /
|
[ Process ] -------
|
/ Output /
|
( Stop )

(Straight Lines for arrows )

48

Advantages and disadvantages of

Advantages:
Simple
Low Cost - Basic
Suitable for simple task
Suitable for processes where no decisions are necessary
Faster - No checks needed

Disadvantages:
No faulty detection
Faults will be repeated
No performance analysis
No feedback loops for improved quality
No Changes can be made to method