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Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Deck (55)
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1

How did the US become the #1 industrial country and out produce all other countries?

-technology and inventions
-mass production (assembly line)
-natural resources

2

Where is the center of the steel industry?

Pittsburgh

3

What new business model came from this?

The Corporation. It uses investors and stocks to get money to start a company, and use vertical and horizontal integration

4

What is Vertical Integration?

This is when a company owns everything needed to produce and sell products, which helps them save money

5

What is Horizontal Integration?

This is when a company gets competing businesses to join theirs when they go out of business

6

What does the Industrial Revolution result in?

-better living standard
-more leisure time (public swimming pools, bands, opera, sewer systems, pro sports, etc)
-labor and management problems (unions)
-improved transportation
-natural resources used more efficiently
-individuals become more self sufficient
-mail ordering

7

What creates factories down south?

The invention of the air conditioner.

8

Where did most immigrants come from at this time?

From southern and eastern Europe

9

Who comes up with Five and Dime stores (Dollar stores)?

Woolworth

10

Why are Unions formed?

Because owners were taking advantage of their employees

11

Describe the Knights of Labor

-leader was Terrence Powderly
-membership was skilled and unskilled workers, and included women, blacks, and immigrants
-goal was to have a new cooperative society (sounds like communism)
-noted strike is the Hay Market
-problems are that 'new cooperative society' is unrealistic and there were skilled and unskilled worker disagreements

12

Describe the American Federation of Labor (AFL)

-leader was Samuel Gompers
-membership was 2.5 million; only skilled workers
-goal was to get higher wages and less hours
-noted strikes are the Homestead and Pullman Strikes
-organized Unions by skill , which gave them more power to strikes

13

Describe the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

-leaders were Bill Haywood and Mother Jones
-membership was skilled and unskilled workers, though primarily unskilled and miners
-goals were class violence, the rich vs. poor, and socialism
-noted strike was the Coal Strike (1906)
-known as the Wobblies

14

What did companies do to fight unions?

-yellow dog contracts, which if you signed them you'd agree to not joining unions or going on strike
-workers were black listed if they belonged to a union
-lock workers out of factories
-injunctions (legal order to stop or start doing something)
-Pinkertons, private detectives or security guards that would stop strikes

15

What was the most violent union?

The Molly Maguires. Irish, Catholic, miners from Pennsylvania

16

What was Holden vs. Hardy?

Miners in Utah wanted 8 hour days and won the case

17

What was Lochner vs. New York?

Bakers in New York wanted only ten hour days, but the Supreme Court said it was unconstitutional to limit the number of hours worked because of the pursuit of happiness

18

Why was Garfield assassinated?

He promised a guy a job in the government if he got elected president because of the Spoil System, and then didn't give the guy the job and got shot

19

Who were all railroad entrepreneurs?

-Vanderbilt
-Stanford
-Harriman
-Hill
-Huntington
-Gold

20

Who was a steel entrepreneur?

Carnegie

21

Who was a tobacco entrepreneur?

Duke

22

Who was a meat packing entrepreneur?

Armour

23

Who was a flour milling entrepreneur?

Pillsbury

24

Who was an aluminum entrepreneur?

Melon

25

Who was a banking entrepreneur?

JP Morgan

26

Who were the oil entrepreneurs?

-Rockefeller (at one point controlled 89% of oil)
-Drake (founded oil in Pennsylvania)
-Sholes (father of American petroleum)

27

What did Alexander Graham Bell invent?

The telephone

28

What did Bessemer invent?

The blass furnace, which turns iron into steel

29

What did Thomas Edison invent?

DC Electricity

30

What did Howe invent?

Sewing machine