Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Deck (28)
Describe what life was like before the Industrial Revolution? (Where did people work, how did we make our stuff, etc?)
Most people lived on small farms and grew crops to eat
Most work was done in the home or was done by hand by an artisan
What major changes took place because of the Industrial Revolution?
Machines began doing more work for people instead of muscle power
People began to work outside of the home, and buy things that were mass produced in a factory
Explain what the enclosure movement was.
Rich farmers bought up the common land, and fenced it off so smaller farmers were not able to use it
Explain what the crop rotation was.
Planting different crops each year to replenish soil, which grew more food per acre
Explain what effect the previous two inventions had on the causes of industrial revolution.
Enclosure movement - Forced a lot the farmer to move to the cities, where they were the workforce for factories
Crop rotation - Even with fewer farmers, this allowed the remaining ones to produced enough food for everyone
List the 7 reasons why England was the first to industrialize.
Plenty of rivers and coal
Large amounts of natural resources like coal and cotton
England had lots of rivers
Large harbors already built
Stable economy and government
Already had a global trade network
Large urban population with no other options
Explain the 5 reasons out of 8 for why England was first to industrialize.
Plenty of energy with rivers and coal to run the machines
Large amounts of natural resources like iron ore for building machines, and raw materials like cotton and wool
Rivers to transport materials and finished goods
Large harbors to handle all the new trade were already built
Stable economy and government allowed businesses to grow
Already had a global trade network to sell goods to
Large urban population with no other options to work in the factories for little pay
Describe the problems of housing for low wage workers during the Industrial revolution.
No building codes
No national free education
Very poor police protection
Streets had no drains and were piled high with waste
Poor conditions were due to the fast pace of population growth in cities and government’s unwillingness to address the problems
Describe the working conditions of low wage workers
12 hour work days, 6 days a week
Paid 1 to 5 dollars per day
No minimum wage, worker’s compensation, or overtime
Business allowed to regulate businesses
Government in the US at the time believed in extreme hands-off principles
Allowed businesses to gain huge profits and make owners incredibly wealthy while workers remained incredibly poor
What does hands off mean in the economy?
No government involvement in the economy
Explain how the invisible hand works and an example of it.
Invisible Hand - the collective decisions of all consumers informs businesses of what to make without the need for governments involvement
Picnic pants vs the charger
Who owns the factors of production in capitalism and makes decisions?
The people/ consumers/ business
What is the incentive to work hard in capitalism?
Provides incentives for hard work and new ideas in the form of money
What is social darwinism?
Applies ideas of “Survival of the Fittest” to humans
Explain how Social Darwinism justified the condition of the poor classes.
Poor people are poor because they are not as advanced as rich people
What did Thomas Malthus believe in?
Believed population grows faster than food supply
Thought we should expect more war, famine and disease to lower population
Overpopulation would lead to everyone being miserable
Did his ideas come true? Why or why not.
No, because we created technology that allowed for humans to make large amounts of food. (high yield grains)
What was a common feature between all the Capitalist reforms?
They did not actually want to change the system, used excuse to justify why it was broken.
They blamed the poor people for the problems.
How did Robert Owen try to fix the problems during the Industrial Revolution?
Tried to create a utopian town, that was meant to be perfect place to live and work and everyone would be considered equal.
Describe the ideas of socialism?
Governments would improve the lives of all people
The government would guide the economy instead of hoping for the “Invisible Hand” to work
Major industries that are important to the health of the nations, such as energy, banking, and transportation would be controlled by the government
All other businesses would be owned by individuals
Why is Karl Marx an important person in history?
He wrote the ideas in the communist manifesto, which laid the groundworks for the ideas of communism
What did Karl Marx see as the biggest cause of the problems of industrialization?
Created two groups of people, the haves who are the wealthy business owners who did not pay their workers anything, and the have-nots who are the workers. They have nothing because of the haves.
What is the goal of communism?
The government work to ensure equality for all people
In a communist country, who would control all of the goods, factories, businesses, money, etc?
What problems are there with the theories of communism?
No incentives for hard work or inventions
What is a union?
Group of workers who join together to force employers to give them better pay, hours, and conditions
Describe how unions gained rights and better conditions for their workers.
Unions have gained many reforms through collective bargaining – negotiations between employers and the business
If that fails, workers can go on strike, which means refusing to work until an agreement has been reached