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Flashcards in Industrialization Deck (62):
1

how did the enclosure mouvement change the appearance of the landscape of an english village?

the large open fields were divided into farms with smaller enclosed fields

2

explain why some landowners in the early 18th early century england wanted to enclose open fields

they wanted to improve the quality of their crops and animals to make greater profit

3

list some of the reasons why the population started to increase rapidly in 18th century western europe

increases supply of food from farms
fewer famines and epidemics
fewer children died in infancy

4

why did many move to towns after the land had been enclosed

rural area became over populated and fewer farmer work was needed

5

why did many emigrate to the colonies after the land had been beloved in 18th century england

they promised vacant lands for settlement and freedom

6

where was the work done in the domestic system and factory system

domestic: in the workers house

factory: in the factory or mill

7

domestic and factory: who owned the workplace

domestic: the worker

factory: the factory owner

8

domestic and factory: where did the workers live

domestic: in the house where they worked

factory: in poor quality houses near the factory

9

domestic and factory: whats the work part time or full time

domestic: part time
factory: full time

10

domestic and factory who controlled the systèmes

domestic: factors

factory: owners or managers

11

domestic and factory: how eee the workers paid

domestic: by the amount they produced
factory: weekly wages

12

domestic and factory: did young children have to help with work

domestic: yes
factory: yes

13

domestic and factory: how skilled did the workers have to be

domestic: spinners and weavers were skilled craftsmen

factory: no, machines did the work

14

domestic and factory: how long did it take to learn these skills

domestic: several years
factory: days/hours

15

domestic and factory:what type of machines were used

domestic: hand operated spinning wheels
factory: power spinning machines and power weaving

16

domestic and factory: what was the main source of energy for the machines

domestic: human muscles
factory: water power and steam engines

17

domestic and factory: what was the speed of production

domestic: slow
factory: much faster

18

domestic and factory: how big was the quantity

domestic: small
factory: much bigger

19

domestic and factory: what was the quality of the products

domestic: okah
factory: much better

20

what did the flying shuttle do

double the speed of the weaving

21

what did the spinning jenny do

span 8 threads at a time

22

what did the water frame do

twisted 10 stronger threads at once

23

what did the spinning mule do

spun fine, strong threads

24

what did the power loom do

did the work of 12 hand weavers

25

name the five machines made in the 18th century

flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule, power loom

26

what was the food supply in 18th century britain

the agricultural production on enclosed farms produces enough food to supply factory workers in the city

27

what were the technical innovations in 18th century britain

several new machines

28

what were the sources on energy in 18th century britain

first water then steam engines

29

what were the sources of power to drive machinery
in 18th century britain

water, coal

30

what were the sources of raw materials in 18th century britain

cole, iron, wool and could import cotton

31

what was the supply of workers in 18th century britain

enclosure made many rural workers unemployed, population increased rapidly

32

what was the capital to invest in 18th century britain

rich landowners, merchants, bankers

33

what was the markets for products in 18th century britain

the increasing population were big internal markets

34

why was metal preferred

metal could be cast far more quickly than wood could me fashioned into it also lasted longer

35

Why were canals structured in British

Increasing demand for cheaper transportation

36

Did the railway network expand rapidly

Yes

37

Why was the electric telegraph important

It allowed news to be sent across the country

38

List some of the events resulting from the railway développemet

More people travelled
Faster communications
Factories built in more suitable places

39

Countryside and factories.How long are usually the hours of work

Countryside is long not continuous
Factories very long

40

Countryside And factories. Who decided on when work was to be done

Countryside is the craftsman
Factories is the factory owner or manager

41

Countryside And factories: Who is in charge

Countryside: The father/mother
Factories: The manager

42

Countryside and factories: how interesting was the work

Countryside:Very repetitive
Factories:Monotonous

43

Countryside And factories: What were working conditions like

Countryside: Fairly safe
Factories: often dangerous and unprotected machines

44

Countryside and factories: Did children have to help with the work

Countryside: Yes to help parents
Factories:Yes to earn money to help parents and support family

45

Countryside and factories: How much pride to be taken in the work

Countryside: fair amount they saw the finished product
Factories:Usually very little

46

Countryside and factories: How much security did they have if they were fired

Countryside: They could be unemployed but not fired
Factories: none

47

Countryside and factories: What were the workers living conditions like

Countryside: Reasonable
Factories: often measurable

48

List Or characteristics of the working conditions in factories

Very long hours the word many women and children in the work face poor working conditions

49

Give a reason my factory owners often prefer to employ women and children

They work for lower wages they cause less trouble and they had more nimble fingers

50

Why did the factory workers Accept such terrible conditions

They need a manager support their family, they could be replaced easily

51

Listen characteristics of the housing built for factory workers in the 19 century Britain

Poor quality construction, small house is crowded in small places

52

List some of the causes of the poor sanitation in the working-class districts

No sewers or drains, No garbage collection

53

List some affects of a poor Sanitary conditions

Resting because they didn’t try and keep clean, water polluted

54

capitalism and socialism: who should own the means of production

capitalism: entrepreneurs and investors

socialism: the workers/people

55

capitalism and socialism: how much control should the state have over business and industries

capitalism: as little as possible

socialism: state should control standards

56

capitalism and socialism: who should enjoys the profits from manufacturing

capitalism: the owners, investors, share holders INDIVIDUALS

socialism: the workers, society in general

57

socialism and capitalism: how much should the workers get paid

capitalism: no more than necessary

socialism: a decent wage for supporting a family

58

capitalism and socialism: what appeal does the theory have for the bougeoirs and investors

capitalism: high appeal

socialism: not popular

59

capitalism and socialism: what appeal does the theory have for the workers

capitalism: low appeal

socialism: seems much more fair

60

capitalism and socialism: what appeal does the theory have for trade unions

capitalism: little appeal

socialism; more appeal

61

when did the industrial revolution begin

in the mid 18th century

62

why did food production increase

new plants made crop rotation popular

large open compact fields wee enclosed to make compact farms