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Flashcards in Industry Deck (48):
1

When was Reutern finance minister?

1864-78

2

Under Reutern what were the foreign investments?

British - textiles, shops
German - finance

3

What developments in engineering were there under Reutern?

Textiles, banking and railways

4

Under Reutern what percentage of the population were employed in transport/industry and how much GNP did this produce?

- 20% of the population
- 10% of GNP

5

By 1870 how much had exports increased?

60%

6

How many businesses were registered on the stock market in 1870s and 1880s?

1870s = 256
1880s = 350

7

What caused Reutern's period to not be very successful?

European downturn in 1870s + harvest failures
- Population in industry still small
- Not much capital generated
= industrial growth not consistent/slow

8

When was Witte finance minister?

1892-1903

9

What was Witte's main development?

Railways - Trans-Siberian Railway

10

How did Witte feel about Tsardom?

Wanted industrialisation to promote and strengthen the traditions of Russia

11

What type of industry did Witte favour?

Large scale:
- Stimulated steel and coal production

12

What were the figures for pig iron production in 1890 and 1900?

1890 = 56m puds
1900 = 179m puds

13

What did Witte's industrialisation rely on?

Foreign loans

14

How did the State pay interest on loans under Witte?

- Had to export grain at all times = even in famine
- Increase taxation
- Impose tariffs

15

What was the average growth rate under Witte?

8%

16

What did the Russian Association of Trade and Industry call for in 1906?

Greater state planning

17

What products were produced 1900-1914?

A diverse range:
- Cars, rubber, medical equipment etc

18

What was the population of St Petersburg in 1900 and 1914?

1900: 1m
1914: 2.25m

19

Between 1881-1897 what percentage of the population emigrated to the cities?

15%

20

By 1914 how did Russia compete with other states in industry?

It was the 4th largest producer of coal, pig iron and steel

21

What was the industrial workforce population by 1914?

3m

22

By 1914 what percentage of national income came from industry?

40%

23

What prevented greater industrialisation from 1900-1914?

Poor technical education

24

What did the 1917 decree issue to workers?

Workers control imposed on factories = appeased workers
- Vesenka took control of the economy
= output continued to decrease

25

How did War Communism influence industry?

Included nationalism = state control of all industrial output

26

What was industrial output like under WC?

1/5 of what it was in 1913
- munitions increased but all other industries declined

27

What was WC driven by?

Ideology and the need to fight a war

28

Why was NEP introduced?

- solution to W/C
- need for social and economic stability
- kick start industrialisation
- further security for the revolution

29

How did NEP effect peasants and workers?

- peasants could sell surplus for profit
- small enterprises could be privately owned

30

Under NEP who controlled the commanding heights of industry?

The state

31

What were the outcomes of NEP?

- paved the way for industrialisation
- revived economy but was unstable
- 1927/28 grain harvest + scissors crisis
- promoted equality

32

What was the purpose of the FYP?

- Establish a war economy
- Create an industrialised state
- Set quotas + targets

33

How were the FYP an ideological success?

Successful propaganda exercise
- e.g the Stakhanov movement

34

What were the outcomes of the 1st FYP?

Emphasis on quantity not quality:
- no change to working conditions
- consumer goods ignored
- coal, iron and electricity increased
- consumer goods ignored

35

What were the outcomes of the 2nd and 3rd FYP?

Heavy industry grew

36

How were the FYP put into practice?

By local officials

37

What did economic planners become part of?

A privileged order comparable to that of the Tsars

38

What were the coal and steel outputs in 1928 and 1837?

Coal: 35m tonnes + 128m tonnes
Steel: 4m tonnes + 17.7m tonnes (above plan)

39

How were the changes by the NEP brought about?

Due to pressure from below - unlike Tsarist times

40

What was Khrushchev's take on industry?

7 Year Plans
- more focus on consumer goods

41

How much more had Khrushchev's USSR produced by 1960 compared to what Stalin envisaged?

- 91m tonnes of steel (60m)
- 609m tonnes of coal (500m)
- 240m tonnes of oil (60m)

42

How was growth in 1929 and 1950 similar?

The sheer scale had been repeated and this development was driven by the need for heavy defence spending

43

How were the 1950s comparable with 1855-1914?

Parallel as Russia seemed to be backwards in comparison to the West, the contrast was in 1930s (due to comparing with a depressed capitalist world)
- repression seemed to be as backwards as the Tsars

44

In terms of industry what was the difference between WWI and WWII?

The Soviet ability to sustain the war effort + the lack of major change of direction after the war
- WWII vindicated Stalin's methods

45

How is there some parallel between Khrushchev and Stalin?

Some similarity with Lenin's economic concessions after 1921 but not as far reaching

46

How was the position of 1962 similar to 1905 and 1917?

Economic development had failed to meet the needs of many people

47

How was there a new level of spending under the USSR?

- Nuclear weapons
- Space race
= drains in the economy BUT in many ways similar to the Tsar's railways and naval building policies which rested heavily on peasant taxation

48

What is the broad symmetry in the period?

NEP allowed a degree of economic freedom similar to the Free Trade era
- when recovery had been achieved much more radical policy of forced economic growth was put into effect