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Flashcards in Infant or child with generalised swelling Deck (10):
1

Causes of hematuria

1. PSGN
2. PCKD
3. Nephrolithiasis
4. Renal tumor
5. Trauma
6. UTI
7. HSP
8. Thin-BMD
9. Alports
10. Sickle cell

2

Causes of proteinuria

1. Nephrotic syndrome
2. Acute renal failure
3. Orthostatic proteinuria
4. UTI

3

History in hematuria and proteinuria

1. Frank blood, pink/frothy, clots, positive dipstick
2. Colour of urine
3. Urinary symptoms
4. Severe pain
5 Precipitants->trauma, throat, skin
6. FHx renal disease
7. Nephrotic
Swelling around eyes noticed in the morning
Any weight gain
Urine output
Fluid restriction
First presentation or relapse
Has the child been treated in the past

4

Investigations and intepretation

1. FBE->anemia, exclude HUS
2. Urinalysis and culture->pyuria, bacteruria
3. ASOT, throat swab->GAS
4. UEC->renal function
5. Serum C3 complement->GN
6. Serum albumin->low in neprhotic
7. Urinary P:Cr high in nephrotic syndrome
8. TAG, cholesterol->high in neprhotic syndrome
9. Renal USS and AXR->may show renal sones
10. Renal biopsy->if renal function impaired, HTN, proteinuria and hematuria

5

Examination

1. BP!!!
2. Abdominal examination->tumor, PCKD, obstruction, ascites
3. Pitting edema
4. Pleural effusions
5. Measure and compare weight
6. Purpuric rash->HSP, HUS

6

Brief overview mx of PSGN

1. Phenoxymethylpenicillin
2. Manage ARF->fluids, electrolyte maintenance
3. Salt and fluid restriction
4. Manage HTN
5. If severe/failure->dialysis

7

Findings on blood investigations in neprhotic

1. +protein in urine
2. Low albumin
3. +TAG, lipids
4. Normal C3 complement

8

Most common cause of generalised swelling

1. Nephritis
2. Nephrosis
3. Allergic reactions
4. Urticaria, angioedema
5. Other causes of hypoalbuminemia

9

Complications of nephritis

1. ARF
2. Pulmonary edema
3. Hypertensive encephalopathy

10

Complications of neprhotic

1. Hypovolemia
2. Ascites
3. Pulmonary effusions
4. Peritonitis->infection
5. Thrombosis

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