Infection 6 - Surface + Hospital-acquired Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection 6 - Surface + Hospital-acquired Infections Deck (22):
1

Which viruses commonly infect the skin/epithelia?

- Human papilloma virus
- Herpes simplex virus

2

Which bacteria commonly infect the skin/epithelia?

- Staph. aureus
- Coagulase negative staphylococci
- Cornyebacterium
- Enterobacteriaceae

3

Which fungi commonly infect the skin/epithelia/nails?

- C. albicans
- Dermatophytes

4

Which parasites commonly infect the skin/hair?

Mites

5

Which bacteria commonly infect the nares?

- Staph. aureus
- Corynebacterium

6

Which bacteria commonly infect the nasopharynx?

- Strep. pneumonia
- Haem. influenzae
- Neis. meningitidis

7

Which micro-organisms commonly infect the mouth?

- Cand. albicans
- Viridans streptococci
- Neisseria spp.
- Lactobacillus
- Bacteroides

8

What is a 'natural surface infection'?

Infection caused by microbes which are usually part of the normal flora, but when transferred to another site, or allowed to overgrow, become pathogenic.

9

How does a natural surface infection of prosthetic joints occur?

Innoculation with coagulase negative staph. or S.aureus may occur during surgery

10

Which bacteria most commonly causes a natural surface infection of prosthetic cardiac valves?

Coagulase negative staph.

11

Which bacteria most commonly cause natural surface infections of pacing wires?

Coagulase negative staph.
S. aureus

12

What methods can be used to diagnose a surface infection?

- Throat/vaginal swab
- Blood/urine/stool tests and cultures
- Lumbar puncture cultures
- Sonication and culture of fluid

13

How can you treat a surface infection?

- Antibiotics
- Removal of prosthetic material
- Resection of infected material

14

How can you prevent a surface infection?

- Prevent colonisation/contamination
- Maintain surface integrity
- Remove colonising bacteria

15

What are the main 7 questions to ask someone with a travel-related infection?

1) Where did you go?
2) When did you go, and the symptoms appear?
3) What are the symptoms?
4) How did they acquire it?
5) Any unwell travel contacts?
6) Any pre-travel vaccinations/preventions?
7) Any healthcare exposure?

16

List some ways a patient may contract a travel-related infection:

- Food
- Water
- Swimming
- Insect bite
- Sex
- Animal contact
- Beach

17

Why is it important to know whether a patient with a travel-related infection has had any healthcare exposure while abroad?

May be infected with multi-resistant organisms
Particularly at risk if travelled to:
- S + SE Asia
- C + S America
- N + W + E Africa

18

Define Travellers diarrhoea:

Diarrhoea (loose/watery stools, 3x within 24hrs) which develops during or shortly after travel abroad.

19

Name some bacteria which commonly cause travellers diarrhoea:

- Salmonella
- Shigella
- Camphylobacter
- E.coli

20

Name some viruses which commonly cause travellers diarrhoea:

- Norovirus
- Rotavirus

21

Name some parasites which commonly cause travellers diarrhoea:

- Giardia
- Cryptosporidium
- E. histolytica

22

What treatment is usually given for travellers diarrhoea?

If moderate = no treatment, just rest + fluids

If severe:
- Fluid resuscitation
- Anti-diarrhoea med = Loperamide
- Antibiotics = Ciprofloxacin