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Flashcards in Infection and response + Bioenergetics Deck (28):

How can bacteria make us feel ill?

bacteria can make you feel ill by producing toxins (poisons) which damage your cells and tissues.


How does tobacco mosaic virus affect a plant's growth?

TMV is a virus which affects many species of plants, It causes a mosaic pattern on the leaves of the plants - parts of the leaves become discoloured.
The discolouration means the plant can't carry out photosynthesis as well, so the virus affects growth.


How are mosquitoes involved in the spread of malaria?

The mosquitoes are vectors - they pick up the malarial protist when they feed on an infected animal. Every time a mosquito feeds on another animal, it infects it by inserting the protist into the animal's blood vessels.


What are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?

Pain when urinating.
Thick yellow or green discharge from vagina or the penis.


How can destroying vectors help prevent the spread of disease?

By getting rid of the organisms that spread disease, you can prevent the disease from being passed on.
Vectors that are insects can be killed with insecticides or by destroying their habitat so that they can no longer breed.


What does the stomach produce that can kill pathogens?

Hydrochloric acid


Give three ways that the white blood cells can defend against pathogens.

Consuming them - They engulf foreign cells and digest them this is called phagocytosis.
Producing Anti bodies
Producing antitoxins


Give one pro and cons of vaccination.

Pro - Controls lots of communicable diseases that were once common in the UK. Smallpox no longer occurs at all and polio infections have fallen by 99%.
Big outbreaks of disease called epidemics can be prevented if large amount of population is vaccinated.
Con - Vaccines don't always work, sometimes don't give immunity.
You can sometimes have a bad reaction to a vaccine. But bad reactions are very rare.


Why is it difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without also damaging body tissues?

Viruses reproduce using your bodies cells which makes it very difficult to develop drugs that destroy just the virus without killing the body's cells.


Which plant does the painkiller aspirin originate from?



What two things are drugs tested on in preclinical testing?

Human cells and tissues.


What is a placebo?

A substance which is like the drug being tested but doesn't do anything. This is so the doctor can see the actual difference the drug makes - it allows for the placebo effect.


Where in a plant cell does photosynthesis take place?

In chloroplasts in green plant cells.


What is an endothermic reaction?

Energy is transferred from the environment in the proces.


What is the word equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water --Light--> glucose + oxygen


Why do plants store glucose as starch?

Stored in roots, stems and leaves ready for when photosynthesis isn't happening like in winter.


What is meant by a 'limiting factor' of photosynthesis?

Factors which stop photosynthesis from happening any faster.


What effect would low carbon dioxide concentration have on the rate of photosynthesis?



Describe how you could measure the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis?

Change light intensity by moving a lamp further away from your plant.


In the inverse square law, how are light intensity and distance linked?

light intensity is proportional to 1/distance squared


What is respiration?

Respiration is the process of transferring energy from glucose, which goes on in every cell.


Whats an exothermic reaction?

It transfers energy to the environment.


Name the products of aerobic respiration

Carbon dioxide + water


What is produced by anaerobic respiration in muscle cells?

lactic acid


What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?

glucose -----> lactic acid


Name two products of food and drink industry that fermentation is needed for.

Bread and alcohol


Give three things that increase to supply the muscles with oxygenated blood during exercise.

Increase respiration in your cells getting more oxygen to them.
breathing rate.
breath volume.


In what organ is lactic acid converted back to glucose?

The liver.