Infection, Infectious Diseases, And Epidemiology Flashcards Preview

Microbiology Exam One > Infection, Infectious Diseases, And Epidemiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection, Infectious Diseases, And Epidemiology Deck (99):
0

What are the normal microorganisms found in our body that do not cause disease called?

Normal flora or indigenous microbiota

1

What type of microbiota in the body remain their for a person's entire life?

Resident microbiota

2

What type of microbiota remain in the body for a limited amount of time before disappearing?

Transient microbiota

3

What locations in the body are axenic?

Alveoli of lungs, CNS, circulatory system, upper urogenital regions, uterus

4

What does axenic mean?

Sites that are free of any microbes that are never colonized by flora

5

When does acquisition of normal microbiota occur?

Shortly after birth

6

What are opportunistic pathogens?

Normal microbiota that can cause disease under certain circumstances

7

What are the certain circumstances that could trigger normal microbiota to cause disease?

Introduction of normal microbiota into unusual site in the body, immune suppression, changes in the normal microbiota

8

What are the three types of potential reservoirs of infection for pathogens to live for protection?

Animal, human carriers, nonliving reservoirs

9

What is a reservoir of infection?

A location where a pathogen is likely to be found to live before they infect a new host

10

What are zoonoses?

Diseases naturally spread from animal host to humans

11

How can we acquire zoonoses?

Direct contact with animal or its waste, eating animals, bloodsucking arthropods

12

Who is usually considered to be a "dead-end host" and why?

Humans are more likely to get diseases from animals and the reverse is very unlikely

13

What is the reservoir for malaria?

Monkeys

14

What is the reservoir for toxoplasmosis?

Cat

15

What is the reservoir for anthrax?

Livestock

16

What is the reservoir for the bubonic plague?

Rodents

17

What is the reservoir for Lyme disease?

Deer

18

What is the reservoir for rabies?

Multiple but #1 involved with humans is bats

19

What is the reservoir for yellow fever?

Monkeys

20

What strategy is used to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease?

Isolation

21

What strategy is used to separate and restrict well persons who may have been exposed to a communicable disease?

Quarantine

22

How do microbes usually get to locations of nonliving reservoirs?

Contamination by feces or urine

23

Soil, food, and water are examples of what kind of reservoir?

Nonliving

24

What is contamination?

The mere presence of microbes in or on the body

25

What is actual infection?

When an organism becomes established in the body that may or may not result in disease

26

What are the three main pathways used by pathogens to enter the body?

Skin, mucous membranes, placenta

27

What is the term for a route that isn't technically a portal of entry but a way to circumvent the usual portals of entry?

Parenteral route

28

What are the portal entries of the skin?

1 openings or cuts
2 hair follicles or sweat glands
3 things that can actually burrow their way into the skin

29

What must a pathogen be able to withstand when using the GI tract as route of entry?

Must survive the acidic pH of the stomach

30

What is the most common route of entry for pathogens?

Respiratory tract (nose, mouth, and eyes)

31

How may pathogens infect a fetus?

By crossing the placenta

32

What type of protozoan can cross the placenta?

Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis in humans)

33

What types of bacteria are known to be able to cross the placenta to harm the fetus?

Treponema pallidum (syphilis in humans) and listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis in humans)

34

What DNA viruses are known to be able to cross the placenta to harm a fetus?

Cytomegalovirus (asymptomatic in adults), parvovirus B19 (erythema infectiosum)

35

What RNA viruses are known to cross the placenta to harm a fetus?

Lentivirus (HIV AIDS) and rubivirus (German measles)

36

What is the difference between infection and disease?

Disease is technically the result of the infection if it alters normal body functions (also known as morbidity)

37

What is pathogenicity?

Ability of a microorganism to CAUSE a disease

38

What is virulence?

Degree of pathogenicity and how easy it is for the organism to cause disease

39

What is antigenicity?

The ability of a substance to stimulate the production of antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses

40

Do pathogenicity and virulence refer to the severity of the disease?

No (example: you can be extremely virulent but only cause a minor condition)

41

Which is subjective: signs of symptoms?

Symptoms

42

Which is objective: signs or symptoms?

Signs

43

What is a group of symptoms and signs that characterize a disease or abnormal condition?

Syndrome

44

What are subjective characteristics of disease felt by only the patient?

Symptoms

45

What are objective manifestations of disease observed or measured by others?

Signs

46

Definition of -emia

Pertaining to blood

47

Definition of -gen or gen-

Give rise to

48

Definition of idio-

Unknown

49

Definition of septi-

Rotting (refers to presence of pathogens)

50

Definition of -osis

Condition of

51

Definition of terato-

Defects

52

Definition of tox-

Poison

53

What is necessary for infectious agents to establish colonies after entering the body?

They must adhere to cells

54

What are extracellular enzymes?

Those secreted by the pathogen

55

What is the function of extracellular enzymes?

Helps pathogen maintain, invade, and avoid the body's defenses

56

Cytotoxins, neurotoxins, and enterotoxins are examples of what kind of toxins?

Exotoxins

57

Lipid A is an example of what kind of toxin?

Endotoxin

58

What is the function of toxins of infectious agents?

Harm tissues or trigger host immune responses that cause damage

59

What is the function of leukocidins?

Prevents the white blood cells from being able to digest the infectious agent and can even destroy them

60

What are the stages of infectious disease in order?

Incubation period, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence

61

When is the incubation period of infectious disease?

Between infection and first symptoms or signs

62

What is the prodromal period of infectious disease?

Short period of generalized, mild symptoms

63

What is the most serious stage of infectious disease?

Illness

64

What is the illness stage of infectious disease?

When signs and symptoms are most evident

65

What is the decline stage of infectious disease?

Immune response/treatment vanquish pathogens, body slowly returns to normal

66

What is the convalescence stage of infectious disease?

Patient recovers from illness tissues repaired and returned to normal

67

How can pathogens leave the host?

Bodily secretions, blood, vaginal secretions or semen, breast milk, bodily wastes

68

What are the five groups of transmission of infectious agents?

Contact, vehicle, vector, airborne, and perinatal

69

What is the term for an inanimate object involved in indirect transmission of infectious agents?

Fomite

70

What mode of transmission of infectious agents involves a non-living middle man?

Vehicle transmission

71

Which mode of transmission of infectious agents involves a living middle man?

Vector transmission (can be mechanical or biological)

72

Waterborne, foodborne, or fecal-oral body fluids represent what kind of mode of transmission for infectious agents?

Vehicle transmission

73

What kind of mode of transmission of infectious agents by an arachnid or insect being a middle man?

Vector transmission

74

Mom to baby transmission is what kind?

Perinatal

75

What kind of vector in transmission only carries the pathogen?

Mechanical

76

What kind of vector in transmission serves as the host for the pathogen, as well?

Biological

77

Ticks and mites are what kind of arthropod?

Arachnids

78

Fleas and lice are what kind of arthropods?

Insects

79

How many pairs of legs do arthropods have?

Four

80

How many pairs of legs do insects have?

Insects (along with three body regions)

81

What is the most important arachnid vector?

Ticks

82

Are spiders arachnid vectors?

No; they do not transmit pathogens

83

What is the most important and most common insect vector?

Mosquitos (most important vector overall, too)

84

What is the term for the number of new cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time?

Incidence

85

What is the term for the number of total cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time?

Prevalence

86

What is the term for a disease that normally occurs at regular intervals with stable incidence within a given population or geographical area?

Endemic

87

What is the term for only a few scattered cases within an area of population?

Sporadic

88

What is the term for when a disease occurs at a greater frequency than is usual for an area or population?

Epidemic

89

What is the term for an epidemic that occurs simultaneously on more than one continent?

Pandemic

90

What is an index case?

The first victim/case of a particular outbreak of an infectious disease

91

What is involved with a careful tabulation of data concerning a disease?

Recording of location and time of the cases of disease along with patient information

92

What is a nosocomial infection?

An infection acquired in health-care settings (patients or employees)

93

What are the three subcategories of nosocomial infections?

Exogenous, endogenous, iatrogenic

94

What kind of nosocomial infection results from a modern medical procedure?

Iatrogenic

95

What kind of nosocomial infection involves a pathogen arising from normal microbiota due to factors in the health care setting?

Endogenous

96

What kind of nosocomial infection involves the pathogen being acquired from the health care environment?

Exogenous

97

What is the most effective way to reduce nosocomial infections?

Hand washing

98

What is used to treat staph aureus?

Vancomycin