Infections of pregnancy, puerperium and neonate. Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Infections of pregnancy, puerperium and neonate. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infections of pregnancy, puerperium and neonate. Deck (28):
1

What is Puerperium?

It is a the weeks after delivery during which the mother's tissues return to their non pregnant state

2

How is Cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquired and transmitted to the baby?

Acquired:
Respiratory droplets/secretions

Transmission to baby:
Haematogenous (Blood stream via placenta)

3

How is Parvovirus B19 acquired by the mother and transmitted to the baby?

Acquired:
Respiratory droplets/secretions

Transmission to baby:
Haematogenous (Blood stream via placenta)

4

How is toxoplasmosis acquired by the mother and transmitted to the baby?

Acquired:
Ingestion of Oocysts (contains parasite, often get from cats)

Transmission to baby:
Haematogenous (Blood stream via placenta)

5

How is Syphilis acquired by the mother and transmitted to the baby?

Acquired:
Sexually transmitted

Transmission to baby:
Haematogenous via placenta

6

How is Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) acquired by the mother and transmitted to the baby?

Acquired:
Respiratory droplets/secretions

Transmission to baby:
Haematogenous (Blood stream via placenta)

7

How is Zika Virus acquired by the mother and transmitted to the baby?

Acquired:
Mosquito bite

Transmission to baby:
Haematogenous (Blood stream via placenta)

8

Give 3 examples of infections that can be transmitted from mother to baby during delivery?

- Group B Streptococcus (part of normal vaginal flora can colonise on baby)

-Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (active ulcers)

-Gonorrhoea (can enter via baby's eyes causing conjuctivitis)

-Chlamydia (can enter via baby's eyes, can cause blindness)

-HIV (usually transmitted via contact rather than placenta)

-Hepatitis B

9

What are some of the considerations when prescribing antimicrobials to pregnant or puerperial women?

- Pregnancy increases the glomerular filtration rate resulting in increased renal excretion of antimicrobials. The serum levels of antimicrobials are therfore lower in pregnancy so a LARGER DOSE maybe required.

-antimicrobials are passed on in breast milk. (consequences for baby)

10

Which antibiotics are considered safe in pregnancy?

-penicillins
-cephalosporins

11

What antibiotics are considered unsafe in pregnancy?

-chloramphenicol
-tetracycline
-fluoroquinolones

12

Give an example of a teratogenic (affect foetus) virus?

Rubella
Zika

13

Describe the management of Urinary Tract Infections.

Treat both asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria (it can progress and cause termination)

Treatment:
Amoxicillin or Cefalexin

14

What is chorioamnionitis?

Inflammation of umbilical cord, amniotic membrances and placenta caused by intra amniotic infection

15

What are the clinical features of Intra- amniotic infections?

-maternal fever
-uterine tenderness
-malodorous amniotic fluid
-maternal / foetal tachycardia
-raised white cell count

16

What are the risk factors of Intra Amniotic Infections?

-prolonged rupture of membranes
-multiple cervical / vaginal examinations
-amniocentesis
-cordocentesis

17

How do Intra Amniotic Infections occur?

Bacteria in the vagina ascend through cervix to cause infection.
OR

Via blood

18

what are organisms cause Intra Amniotic Infections?

- Group B Streptococcus (part of normal vaginal flora)

-Enterococci (gastrointestinal tract)

-Escherichia Coli

19

How is Intra Amniotic infection managed?

-Antimicrobials and delivery ASAP

20

What is puerperal endometritis?

Infection of womb during puerperium

21

What are the risk factors of puerperal endometritis?

-prolonged labour
-caesarean section
-Prolonged labour
-prolonged rupture of membranes
-multiple vaginal examinations

22

What are the Clinical features of puerperal endometritis?

-Fever
-uterine tenderness
-bad smelling vaginal discharge
-increased white cell count
-abdo pain
-malaise

23

What organisms cause Peurperal Endometritis and how is it treated?

-Escheria Coli
-Beta-haemolytic streptococci
-Anaerobes

Treated with intravenous antimicrobials.

24

What causes Puerperal Mastitis?

Staphylococcus Aureus

25

What are the clinical features of Puerperal Mastitis?

-onset 5 weeks post delivery
-fever, chills, breast soreness
-redness, warmth and tenderness of affected breast

26

What is neonatal sepsis / meningitis?

sepsis is a syndrome resulting from invasion of pathogenic bacteria into the blood. Meningitis is a complication of sepsis.

27

What are the clinical features of Neonatal sepsis / meningitis?

-Temperature
-Respiratory (dyspnoea, apnoeas, cyanosis)
-Cardiovascular (Tachycardia, bradycardia, hypotension)
-Hepatic (hepatomegaly, jaundice)
-Gastrointestinal (anorexia, vomiting, abdominal distension, diarrhoea)
-Haematological (bleeding disorders)
-CNS (lethargy, irritability and seizures)

28

What organisms cause neonatal sepsis / meningitis?

-Group B Streptococcus
-Escherichia Coli
-Listeria Monocytogenes

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