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Clinical Medicine Final Exam > Infectious Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infectious Disease Deck (227)
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1

What type of bacteria causes TB? What is the bacteria considered to be?

- mycobacterium TB
- acid fast

2

How is TB transmitted?

inhalation of aerosolized droplets

3

TB damages what type of areas? (2)

damages areas with high oxygen tension, e.g., lungs or choroid

4

What is one risk factor for contracting TB for the first time?

exposure to someone previously been infected

5

t/f: a person with TB can irradicate the disease from their system

f: (can’t irradicate from system)

6

What are the five risk factors for TB reactivation?

immunocompromise
diabetes
end-stage kidney disease
corticosteroid use
cigarette smoking

DICKS

7

What are 4 possible outcomes after a TB exposure?

1. Immediate eradication
2. Primary/Active
3. Latency
4. Reactivation

8

What two outcomes have NO si/sp?

immediate and latent

9

If a person has primary/active TB, what symptoms will they have?

fever and chest pain

10

If a person experiences reactivation of TB – what symptoms might they have?

fatigue, chest pain + physical exam findings

11

What is a CLASSIC sign for P/A TB?

hilar lymphadenopathy

12

What are three signs for reactivation TB?

- Diurnal fever (worse during the day)
- Cough
- Weight loss, night sweats, dyspnea

13

Describe the cough for reactivation TB?

non-productive
yellow/yellow green
blood-streaked
red
(hemoptysis – red septum)

14

If you suspect TB – what three tests would you order?

- chest xray
- TST/PPD
- quantiferon-TB Gold test

15

What does a TST or PPD detect?

hypersensitivity reaction

16

t/f: a patient will test (-) if h/o BCG vaccine

f: Can test (+) if h/o vaccination with the BCG vaccine

17

what are three ways TB can affect the eye?

- Direct spread from bloodstream - eye (most common by far)
- Direct ocular infection w/o systemic infection
- Hypersensitivity reaction

18

t/f: TB can manifest in any eye structure

t

19

ocular TB most commonly affects what part of the eye?

uvea (iris, CB, choroid)

20

TB can manifest unilateral and bilateral – if bilateral, what do we have to suspect?

systemic etiology

21

How will a hypersensitivity reaction of TB manifest in the eye?

phlyctenules

22

What is the most serious sequela of TB?

death

23

If a person has TB – what are they susceptible to?

secondary chronic respiratory disorders

24

If you suspect TB – what other infectious diseases must you rule out? Why?

- Must rule out HIV infection especially if no recollection of exposure

* HIV is the most common cause of immunocompromised

25

The first line drug treatment for TB causes what to happen in the eye?

causes orange-yellow tears/secretions

26

Name one TB prevention? what does it do?

(BCG) vaccine against TB - Injects live attenuated strain

27

What bacteria causes the most staphylococcus infections?

s. aureus

28

Is S. aureus gram (+) or gram (-)?

Is S. aureus catalase (+) or catalase (-)?

Gram (+)
Catalase (+)

29

How is staphylococcus transmitted?

bacteria enter the body via open wound (benign - pathological)

30

What are the three risk factors for developing staph?

- Immunocompromise
- Recent surgical procedure
- illegal drug use