INFECTIOUS DISEASES Flashcards Preview

Bio Unit 4 > INFECTIOUS DISEASES > Flashcards

Flashcards in INFECTIOUS DISEASES Deck (23):
1

What is a pathogen?

Micro-organism that causes an immune response from body

2

What are the 5 types of pathogens?

- Bacteria
- Fungi
- Virus
- Protist

3

What are some examples of the 5 types of pathogens?

P: malaria, amoebic meningitis
B: cholera, salmonella
V: influenza, measles, AIDS, chicken pox
F: ring worm
P: tapeworm, tick

4

How are pathogens transmitted?

- air
- water
- contact
- ingestion
- vector (via another organism)

5

What are some of the management strategies used to control the spread of infectious diseases?

- Quarantine
- Immunisation - herd immunity
- Disruption pathogen cycle
- Medication - antibiotics + antiviral
- Physical prevention measures

6

What is some of the strategies used to control the spread of a mosquito-borne disease?

MALARIA
Knowledge of pathogen lifecycle can help stop spread of infectious diseases
Malaria you must stop its lifecycle → control spread of disease
- drain swamps - stop breeding, no stagnant water, mosquito spray public spaces - get rid of vector, mosquito nets

7

What is an infectious disease?

- Caused by the entrance into the body of organisms Bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses grow and multiply there
- Transmitted from one host to another

8

What are the 4 main groups that causes disease?

- Bacteria
- Fungi
- Protist
- Bacteria

9

What makes pathogenic bacteria distinguishable? What are the structural characteristics of pathogenic bacteria?

Single cell organelle
Capsule
Bacterial flagellum
Pilus
Cell wall
Plasma membrane
DNA (bacterial chromosome) + ribsomes
No nucleus

10

What makes pathogenic fungi distinguishable? What are the structural characteristics of pathogenic fungus?

Eukaryotes that reproduce using spores
Possess cell walls made of chitin rather than cellulose

11

What makes pathogenic protists distinguishable? What are the structural characteristics of pathogenic protists?

Unicellular
Reproduce sexually + asexually

12

What makes viruses distinguishable? What are the structural characteristics of viruses?

Non-cellular agent composed of protein coat and nucleic acid, either DNA/RNA
Phospholipid envelope
Viral protein incorporated in envelope
Core proteins

13

D͙I͙S͙E͙A͙S͙E͙ O͙R͙G͙A͙N͙I͙S͙M͙ C͙A͙U͙S͙I͙N͙G͙ O͙R͙G͙A͙N͙I͙S͙M͙ A͙F͙F͙.
tb
crown gall
cytotridio
-mycosis
tetanus
malaria
influenza
rr virus
varroa
lyssavirus

D͙I͙S͙E͙A͙S͙E͙ ͙C͙A͙U͙S͙E͙ ͙ A͙F͙F͙E͙C͙T͙E͙D͙
tb bacterium humans
crown gall bacterium plants
cytotridio fungus amphibians
-mycosis
tetanus bacterium humans
malaria protist humans
influenza virus cats,pigs, birds,
dogs,humans
rr virus virus animals, humans
deformed wing virus honey bees
virus (via vorroa
mite)
lyssavirus virus Australian bats

14

What is a pathogen?

Disease causing agent

15

What is an infectious disease?

Disease caused by pathogen invasion and is passed on from one organism to another

16

What is a zoonoses?

An infectious disease of animals and naturally transmit to animals
Eg rabies, swine flu

17

What are the different modes of transmission of infectious diseases?

Direct contact: physical contact of an infected person with susceptible person

Indirect contact: no direct human-to-human contact, contact occurs from reservoir to contaminated surfaces, objects or to vectors (eg mozzies)

18

Airborne

- cough + sneeze
Eg influenza and cold virus

19

Water

Some organisms enter through skin
Eg blood fluke larvae

20

Contact

Contact with sores or body fluid
Eg chicken pox, HIV, herpes

21

Ingested

Contaminated food or water
Eg salmonella

22

Vector

Organism that carry + spread infection, conveys pathogen from one host to another
Does not cause disease
Eg mosquito

23

What are the stages of disease?

1) Infection
2) Incubation period - time until symptoms appear
3) Disease - showing symptoms
> latent period: time between infection + being infectious
> infectious: when infection can be passed to others, does not necessarily mean that symptoms are shown/displayed