Flashcards in Inflammation #1 (Murnane) Deck (85):
What are the 3 types of arthritis? Which are the main 2?
-Inflammatory Arthritis (main)
_______ the DEGENERATION OF JOINT CARTILAGE and associated BONE ABNORMALITIES
T/F The joint fluid typically shows NO inflammatory cells when a person is suffering from osteoarthritis
There are 2 types of osteoarthritis: ____ and _____. Which has no specific cause, but tends to be associated with aging?
primary and secondary; PRIMARY
There are 2 types of osteoarthritis: ______ and _____. Which is caused by previous injury to the affected joint that can begin at a young age
_______: CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS of the body that are associated with arthritis
(there are often other systemic symptoms)
What are the 3 types of inflammatory arthritis?
-crystal-induced arthritis (gout)
rheumatoid arthritis (2)
-chronic inflammation of the synovium within the joints (usually multiple dif joints)
psoriatic arthritis (2)
-associated with psoriasis and multiple joints
_____ is a type of crystal induced arthritis that is caused by MONOSODIUM URATE MONOHYDRATE CRYSTALS
______ is is a type of crystal induced arthritis that is caused by CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTALS
______ life and limb threatening bacterial infection in the joint
T/F Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed of primary tissues
What are the 4 main classes of connective tissue?
-connective tissue proper
Where is the source of pain in patients with arthritis?
joints (synovial joints)
T/F Synovial joints contain ALL forms of connective tissue
The synovial joint is made up of (4)
-joint cavity (contains the fluid)
The FIBROUS LAYER of synovial joint is composed of ......
dense, irregular connective tissue
The SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE is composed of.....
loose, areolar connective tissue
What are the major functions of connective tissue? (4)
-SUPPORT and binding
General Properties of Connective tissue? (6)
-Non-living extracellular matrix
-Weight-bearing & support
-Various degrees of vascularization
-Presence of lymphatics (not in all connective tissue)
Major Structural Components of Connective tissue(3)
The main type of loose connective tissue is? cartilage?
What is the purpose of connective tissue proper? (2)
-resist mechanical stress, particularly TENSION
What is the purpose of cartilage?
-function to cushion and support body structure
thick, tough, resist stress
-strongest AND most abundant
thin, stretch, recoil, maintain shape
thin, form delicate networks, surround and support
Synovial membrane of the joint is made up of ______ connective tissue. Why is this important
loose areolar tissue; it is highly vascularized
(supplies nutrients and fluid for the joint AND source of inflammatory mediators
Dense irregular connective tissue is composed of ......
closely packed bundles of collagen fibers
What is the purpose of dense irregular connective tissue?
structurally reinforces the joint (b/c of collagen fibers) AND it is poorly vascularized (very few cells)
What 3 characteristics makes connective tissue dif from primary tissue?
-derived from mesenchyme
-have varying DEGREES OF VASCULARITY
-have EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
Ground Substance is also known as ________. Purpose?
extracellular matrix; fills the space between cells so that tissue can BEAR WEIGHT, WITHSTAND TENSION, ENDURE ABUSE
(potential approach to treating osteoarthritis)
What is the ground substance made up of? (4)
-interstitual fluid (mostly water)- 80%
-proteoglycans (protein core + GAGs)
What are the functions of PROTEOGLYCANS? (4)
Proteoglycans consist of
protein core + GAG (glycosaminoglycans also known as amino sugars)
What are the 2 most common GAGs?
______ is a type of proteoglycan found EXTENSIVELY in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
aggrecans (have high concentrations of CHONDROITIN and KERATAN)
represent up to 10% of the dry weight of cartilage
The higher the content of GAG, the _____ the ground substance
What attaches to collagen fibers?
-SECRETE ground substance and fibers
in connective tissue proper
The cartilage most associated with OA is _____. why?
hyaline b/c it is composed of complex, movable synovial joints
What are the 2 types of metabolism? describe
-catabolism- break down (hydrolysis)
T/F Chondrocytes are the only cellular component in ADULT CARTILAGE AND must have a low
metabolic activity, since it survives in cartilage that is avascular with low oxygen supplies
T/F There are different types of bones
TRUE (long, flat, short, irregular)
If bone resorption exceeds synthesis this leads to
LONG bone components include: (2)
-cortical or compact bone- 80% of bone mass
-trabecular bone (spongy, cancellous)-20% of bone mass
Where is cortical or compact bone found in LONG BONE?
outer layer bulk of diaphysis
90% of protein mass of matrix is TYPE I collagen
Where is trabecular bone found in LONG BONE?
interior of bone
(constantly being synthesized and reabsorbed)
Which has the fastest metabolism?
cortical/ compact bone OR trabecular bone?
The outside membrane of LONG BONE is
periosteum (2 layers)
-outer layer--> fibrous (connects Periosteum to bone)
Which BONE MARROW?
-Produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
Red or hematopoietic marrow
Which BONE MARROW?
-Produces fat, cartilage, and bone
yellow or stromal
T/F Bone contains LESS collagen than cartilage
Functions of BONE (5)
-allow for movement
-form blood cells
_____:support and protect
T/F The hyoid IS NOT a BONE of the SKULL
T/F The hyoid bone does not articulate DIRECTLY with another bone
TRUE; its function is to move the tongue
Where is a common place for RED bone marrow in adults? (3)
-heads of femur AND humerus
What are the ORGANIC components of BONE? (2)
-CELLS (osteoblast, osteocytes, osteoclast)
-OSTEOID (bone matrix)
What are the INORGANIC components of BONE?
hydroxyapatite crystals (mineral salts made up of largely calcium phosphates
2/3 of the total composition of bone is _________
inorganic components (hydroxyapatite crystals)
1/3 of the total composition of bone is _________
organic components (OSTEOID specifically which contain COLLAGEN FIBERS AND GROUND SUBSTANCE)
What is compact bone made up of?
osteons or haversian systems
(elongated cylinders that run parallel to axis of bone that are made up of COLLAGEN FIBERS)
What allows compact bone to withstand stress- resist twisting?
the collagen fibers found in the osteons or haversian systems
What surrounds the haversian canals (osteon)?
Bone is constantly being remodeled involving resorption of bone by __________ and deposition of bone by ________
T/F If bone resorption exceeds synthesis, leads to OSTEOPOROSIS
T/F Osteroblast are the most abundant cell in the compact bone
T/F Osteocytes can stimulate the anabolism or catabolism of bone
In certain chronic diseases, bone resorption DOMINATES over bone deposition, what does this lead to?
BONE LOSS (rheumatoid arthritis)
The interaction between _____ and ____ results in the activation of osteoclast
RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB) and RANKL (ligand for RANK)
After osteoCLAST bind bone via integrins, what can happen? (3)
-release acid and proteins to dissolve bone
-release lysosomal enzymes (acid proteases)
-release cytokines to activate NFkB pathway (RANK and RANKL)
Site where 2 or more bones meet
How can joints be classified?
What are the 3
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS of joints?
-AMPHIarthroses (slightly movable)
-DIarthroses (freely movable joints)
What are the 3 STRUCTURAL classificaitons of joints?