Inflammation #1 (Murnane) Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Pain Management > Inflammation #1 (Murnane) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation #1 (Murnane) Deck (85):
1

What are the 3 types of arthritis? Which are the main 2?

-Osteoarthritis (main)
-Inflammatory Arthritis (main)
-Septic Arthritis

2

_______ the DEGENERATION OF JOINT CARTILAGE and associated BONE ABNORMALITIES

osteoarthritis

3

T/F The joint fluid typically shows NO inflammatory cells when a person is suffering from osteoarthritis

TRUE

4

There are 2 types of osteoarthritis: ____ and _____. Which has no specific cause, but tends to be associated with aging?

primary and secondary; PRIMARY

5

There are 2 types of osteoarthritis: ______ and _____. Which is caused by previous injury to the affected joint that can begin at a young age

SECONDAY

6

_______: CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS of the body that are associated with arthritis

inflammatory arthritis

(there are often other systemic symptoms)

7

What are the 3 types of inflammatory arthritis?

-rheumatoid
-psoriatic
-crystal-induced arthritis (gout)

8

rheumatoid arthritis (2)

-autoimmune
-chronic inflammation of the synovium within the joints (usually multiple dif joints)

9

psoriatic arthritis (2)

-autoimmune
-associated with psoriasis and multiple joints

10

_____ is a type of crystal induced arthritis that is caused by MONOSODIUM URATE MONOHYDRATE CRYSTALS

Gout

11

______ is is a type of crystal induced arthritis that is caused by CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTALS

Pseudogout

12

______ life and limb threatening bacterial infection in the joint

septic arthritis

13

T/F Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed of primary tissues

TRUE

14

What are the 4 main classes of connective tissue?

-blood
-bone
-cartilage
-connective tissue proper

15

Where is the source of pain in patients with arthritis?

joints (synovial joints)

16

T/F Synovial joints contain ALL forms of connective tissue

TRUE

17

The synovial joint is made up of (4)

-joint cavity (contains the fluid)
-articular cartilage
-fibrous layer
-synovial membrane

18

The FIBROUS LAYER of synovial joint is composed of ......

dense, irregular connective tissue

19

The SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE is composed of.....

loose, areolar connective tissue

20

What are the major functions of connective tissue? (4)

SPIT
-SUPPORT and binding
-PROTECTION
-INSULATION
-TRANSPORTATION

21

General Properties of Connective tissue? (6)

-Non-living extracellular matrix
-Living cells
-Weight-bearing & support
-Various degrees of vascularization
-Nerve Supply
-Presence of lymphatics (not in all connective tissue)

22

Major Structural Components of Connective tissue(3)

-Ground Substance
-Fibers
-Cells

23

The main type of loose connective tissue is? cartilage?

areolar; hyaline

24

What is the purpose of connective tissue proper? (2)

-binding tissue
-resist mechanical stress, particularly TENSION

25

What is the purpose of cartilage?

-resist COMPRESSION
-function to cushion and support body structure

26

FIBERS:
thick, tough, resist stress

-strongest AND most abundant

collagen

27

FIBERS:
thin, stretch, recoil, maintain shape

elastic

28

FIBERS:
thin, form delicate networks, surround and support

-highly branched

reticular

29

Synovial membrane of the joint is made up of ______ connective tissue. Why is this important

loose areolar tissue; it is highly vascularized

(supplies nutrients and fluid for the joint AND source of inflammatory mediators

30

Dense irregular connective tissue is composed of ......

closely packed bundles of collagen fibers

31

What is the purpose of dense irregular connective tissue?

structurally reinforces the joint (b/c of collagen fibers) AND it is poorly vascularized (very few cells)

32

What 3 characteristics makes connective tissue dif from primary tissue?

-derived from mesenchyme
-have varying DEGREES OF VASCULARITY
-have EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX

33

Ground Substance is also known as ________. Purpose?

extracellular matrix; fills the space between cells so that tissue can BEAR WEIGHT, WITHSTAND TENSION, ENDURE ABUSE

(potential approach to treating osteoarthritis)

34

What is the ground substance made up of? (4)

-interstitual fluid (mostly water)- 80%
-proteoglycans (protein core + GAGs)
-GAGs (glycosaminoglycans)
-adhesion molecules

35

What are the functions of PROTEOGLYCANS? (4)

(BLTS)
-Binds proteins
-Lubricant
-Traps water
-Structural Integrity

36

Proteoglycans consist of

protein core + GAG (glycosaminoglycans also known as amino sugars)

37

What are the 2 most common GAGs?

-chondroitin sulfate
-hyaluronic acid

38

______ is a type of proteoglycan found EXTENSIVELY in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

aggrecans (have high concentrations of CHONDROITIN and KERATAN)

39

represent up to 10% of the dry weight of cartilage

aggrecans

40

The higher the content of GAG, the _____ the ground substance

stiffer

41

What attaches to collagen fibers?

aggrecans

42

What cell?
-immature
-mitotically active
-SECRETE ground substance and fibers

"blasts" cells

43

What cell?
-mature form
-maintain matrix

"cyte" cells

44

fibroblast

in connective tissue proper

45

chondroblast

in cartilage

46

osteoblasts

in bone

47

chondrocytes

in cartilage

48

osteocytes

in bone

49

The cartilage most associated with OA is _____. why?

hyaline b/c it is composed of complex, movable synovial joints

50

What are the 2 types of metabolism? describe

-anabolism-build up
-catabolism- break down (hydrolysis)

51

T/F Chondrocytes are the only cellular component in ADULT CARTILAGE AND must have a low
metabolic activity, since it survives in cartilage that is avascular with low oxygen supplies

TRUE

52

T/F There are different types of bones

TRUE (long, flat, short, irregular)

53

If bone resorption exceeds synthesis this leads to

osteoporosis

54

LONG bone components include: (2)

-cortical or compact bone- 80% of bone mass
-trabecular bone (spongy, cancellous)-20% of bone mass

55

Where is cortical or compact bone found in LONG BONE?

outer layer bulk of diaphysis

90% of protein mass of matrix is TYPE I collagen

56

Where is trabecular bone found in LONG BONE?

interior of bone

(constantly being synthesized and reabsorbed)

57

Which has the fastest metabolism?
cortical/ compact bone OR trabecular bone?

trabecular

58

The outside membrane of LONG BONE is

periosteum (2 layers)
-outer layer--> fibrous (connects Periosteum to bone)
-inner layer-->osteogenic

59

Which BONE MARROW?
-Produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
-Highly vascular

Red or hematopoietic marrow

60

Which BONE MARROW?
-Produces fat, cartilage, and bone

yellow or stromal

61

T/F Bone contains LESS collagen than cartilage

FALSE; MORE

62

Functions of BONE (5)

-support
-protect
-allow for movement
-store minerals
-form blood cells

63

BONE:
_____:support and protect
______:movement

axial; appendicular

64

T/F The hyoid IS NOT a BONE of the SKULL

TRUE

65

T/F The hyoid bone does not articulate DIRECTLY with another bone

TRUE; its function is to move the tongue

66

Where is a common place for RED bone marrow in adults? (3)

-hips
-sternum
-heads of femur AND humerus

67

What are the ORGANIC components of BONE? (2)

-CELLS (osteoblast, osteocytes, osteoclast)
-OSTEOID (bone matrix)

68

What are the INORGANIC components of BONE?

hydroxyapatite crystals (mineral salts made up of largely calcium phosphates

69

2/3 of the total composition of bone is _________

inorganic components (hydroxyapatite crystals)

70

1/3 of the total composition of bone is _________

organic components (OSTEOID specifically which contain COLLAGEN FIBERS AND GROUND SUBSTANCE)

71

What is compact bone made up of?

osteons or haversian systems

(elongated cylinders that run parallel to axis of bone that are made up of COLLAGEN FIBERS)

72

What allows compact bone to withstand stress- resist twisting?

the collagen fibers found in the osteons or haversian systems

73

What surrounds the haversian canals (osteon)?

lamella

74

Bone is constantly being remodeled involving resorption of bone by __________ and deposition of bone by ________

osteoclast; osteoblast

75

T/F If bone resorption exceeds synthesis, leads to OSTEOPOROSIS

TRUE

76

T/F Osteroblast are the most abundant cell in the compact bone

FALSE; osteoCYTES

77

T/F Osteocytes can stimulate the anabolism or catabolism of bone

TRUE

78

In certain chronic diseases, bone resorption DOMINATES over bone deposition, what does this lead to?

BONE LOSS (rheumatoid arthritis)

79

The interaction between _____ and ____ results in the activation of osteoclast

RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB) and RANKL (ligand for RANK)

80

BONE RESORPTION
After osteoCLAST bind bone via integrins, what can happen? (3)

-release acid and proteins to dissolve bone
-release lysosomal enzymes (acid proteases)
-release cytokines to activate NFkB pathway (RANK and RANKL)

81

Site where 2 or more bones meet

articulation

82

How can joints be classified?

-function
-structure

83

What are the 3
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS of joints?

-AMPHIarthroses (slightly movable)
-DIarthroses (freely movable joints)

SYNarthroses (immovable)

84

What are the 3 STRUCTURAL classificaitons of joints?

-CARTILAGINOUS
-SYNOVIAL

fibrous

85

____ are the joints of the spine

symphyses (they primarily contain firbocartilage)