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Clinical Medicine Final Exam > Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (194)
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1

Define allergy.

is when normal substances cause an immune reaction

2

When an allergen (antigen) enters the body it binds to what? Activates what?

Binds to IgE (and B and T antigen-presenting cells)

Activates mast cells and basophils

3

t/f: the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis begins at first exposure

f: requires previous exposure

4

the adaptive immune system needs to make what?

IgE for antigen

5

t/f: allergy causes early and late reactions

t

6

define early phase.

What does histamine increase?

Why is this important?

Immediate response - Histamine

increases venule permeability and dilation - compounds can get from vein to tissue more easily

7

Define late phase

- Hours later: chemokines
- Late phase pathophysiology is when chemokines are active

8

Chemokines are activated by what cells?

mast cells

9

IgE releases what cells?

mast cells

10

What 3 things do mast cells release? When are they released?

Histamine – early phase
Chemokines – late phase
Basophils - exit in blood vessels

11

t/f: some people are more prone to allergies

t

12

what are three risk factors for patients suffering from allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis?

allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis is associated with what three things?

- Risk factors
o Antigens
o Pollen
o Food

- Associated with:
o Asthma
o Food allergies
o Allergic conjunctivitis

13

t/f: ALL allergies need to be tested.

f

14

What are two ways (allergies) allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis can be tested?

o Skin prick testing
o Serum IgE

15

t/f: allergies can lead to infection

t

16

what is a common ocular manifestation in people with allergic issues?

allergic conjunctivitis

17

t/f: there are different kinds of allergic conjunctivitis (related to the environment, CL, etc.)

t

18

what is a sequala of allergic rhinitis?

o Bacterial infections: Ear and Sinuses

19

What is a sequala of atopic dermatitis?

bacterial skin infection

20

What is the MOST effective management strategy to deal with allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis?

- avoid/remove allergin

21

What is an early phase management strategy for allergic rhinitis?

antihistamines

22

What are three late phase management strategies for allergic rhinitis?

- Mast cell stabilizer
- Decongestant
- Leukotriene receptor agonist (montelukast)

23

t/f: management of allergic rhinitis does not incorporate the use of anti-inflammatory steroids

f: they do
- Stop inflammation process early
- Steroid: nasal spray, inhaler, oral

24

what are 4 management strategies of atopic dermatitis?

o Moisturize/cleanse with gentle cleaner
o Steroid creams
o Non-steroidal creams
o Anti-inflammatory

25

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is an anaphylaxis reaction?

1

26

Define anaphylaxis.

severe, life-threatening type 1 hypersensitivity
o Triggered by allergen (just as with allergy)
o Response is more severe than allergy
- Rapid (minutes to hours)
- Regular pathway for allergy, EXCEPT…
o Histamine is released systemically

27

anaphylaxis is when there is a widespread allergic response. What does this mean?

more than one system is affected

28

What 4 systems are affected in anaphylaxis and how?

- Skin: hives, angioedema

- Respiratory: Dyspnea, wheeze/bronchospasm/hypoxemia

- Cardiovascular: reduced blood pressure, end-organ mal-perfusion (hypotonia/syncope), tachycardia

- Gastrointestinal: abdominal cramps, vomiting

29

What diagnostic testing is used for anaphylaxis?

test is not useful

30

What is the most severe sequala of anaphylaxis?

death