Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (194)
is when normal substances cause an immune reaction
When an allergen (antigen) enters the body it binds to what? Activates what?
Binds to IgE (and B and T antigen-presenting cells)
Activates mast cells and basophils
t/f: the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis begins at first exposure
f: requires previous exposure
the adaptive immune system needs to make what?
IgE for antigen
t/f: allergy causes early and late reactions
define early phase.
What does histamine increase?
Why is this important?
Immediate response - Histamine
increases venule permeability and dilation - compounds can get from vein to tissue more easily
Define late phase
- Hours later: chemokines
- Late phase pathophysiology is when chemokines are active
Chemokines are activated by what cells?
IgE releases what cells?
What 3 things do mast cells release? When are they released?
Histamine – early phase
Chemokines – late phase
Basophils - exit in blood vessels
t/f: some people are more prone to allergies
what are three risk factors for patients suffering from allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis?
allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis is associated with what three things?
- Risk factors
- Associated with:
o Food allergies
o Allergic conjunctivitis
t/f: ALL allergies need to be tested.
What are two ways (allergies) allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis can be tested?
o Skin prick testing
o Serum IgE
t/f: allergies can lead to infection
what is a common ocular manifestation in people with allergic issues?
t/f: there are different kinds of allergic conjunctivitis (related to the environment, CL, etc.)
what is a sequala of allergic rhinitis?
o Bacterial infections: Ear and Sinuses
What is a sequala of atopic dermatitis?
bacterial skin infection
What is the MOST effective management strategy to deal with allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis?
- avoid/remove allergin
What is an early phase management strategy for allergic rhinitis?
What are three late phase management strategies for allergic rhinitis?
- Mast cell stabilizer
- Leukotriene receptor agonist (montelukast)
t/f: management of allergic rhinitis does not incorporate the use of anti-inflammatory steroids
f: they do
- Stop inflammation process early
- Steroid: nasal spray, inhaler, oral
what are 4 management strategies of atopic dermatitis?
o Moisturize/cleanse with gentle cleaner
o Steroid creams
o Non-steroidal creams
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is an anaphylaxis reaction?
severe, life-threatening type 1 hypersensitivity
o Triggered by allergen (just as with allergy)
o Response is more severe than allergy
- Rapid (minutes to hours)
- Regular pathway for allergy, EXCEPT…
o Histamine is released systemically
anaphylaxis is when there is a widespread allergic response. What does this mean?
more than one system is affected
What 4 systems are affected in anaphylaxis and how?
- Skin: hives, angioedema
- Respiratory: Dyspnea, wheeze/bronchospasm/hypoxemia
- Cardiovascular: reduced blood pressure, end-organ mal-perfusion (hypotonia/syncope), tachycardia
- Gastrointestinal: abdominal cramps, vomiting
What diagnostic testing is used for anaphylaxis?
test is not useful