Inflammation #2 (Murnane) Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Pain Management > Inflammation #2 (Murnane) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation #2 (Murnane) Deck (63):
1

T/F Arthritic disease are the MOST crippling disease in the US, the symptoms are INDIRECTLY related to inflammation

FALSE; directly

2

Synovitis

irritation and thickening of the synovium

3

Synovitis beings _____ in RA and _____ in OA

early; late

4

______ and ______reduces FRICTION between ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones when they rub together

bursea; tendon sheaths

5

When the bursea is infected it is known as ______; when the tendon sheaths are infected it is known as _____

bursitis; tendonitis

6

The immune system includes what 2 intrinsic pathways?

-innate (nonspecific) immunity
-adaptive (specific) immunity

7

Innate immunity= _____ and ____ while
Adaptive immunity=
_____ and ___

innate: gout and OA

adaptive: lupus (SLE) and RA

8

What are the 2 most common types of phagocytes?

-neutrophils (common WBC)
-macrophages

9

macrophages develop from _____ and are stimulated AFTER _____

monocytes; neutrophils

10

______ are the most abundant phagocyte, but they die fighting

neutrophils

11

What cells drive most blood mediated inflammatory responses?

-leukocytes
-platelets

(both are apart of the buffy coat, which is less than 1% of whole blood)

12

T/F Macrophages take longer to develop than neutrophils, but live far longer

TRUE

13

What mechanism does macrophages use to get to the site of inflammation?

chemotaxis

14

opsonization

the marking of pathogens by complement proteins (innate immunity) OR antibodies (adaptive immunity)

15

During phagocytosis, the pathogen is engulfed in a vesicle called a ______ which fuses with a _____= ______

phagosome; lysosome

PHAGOLYSOSOME

16

During the typical inflammatory response there are FOUR major components?

-inflammatory inducers
-sensors that detect the inducers
-inflammatory mediators produced by sensors
-target tissues affected by mediators

17

PAMPs and DAMPs are considered _______. PAMPs are associated with _______ cells while DAMPs are associated with _____ cells.

inducers; foreign cells (pathogens); damaged

18

TLR (toll-like receptors) are an example of _________ and are found on which cells?

Sensors;
macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells

- expressed in many cells

19

______ phagocytizes bacteria in about 14 days but lives for only 6 hours to a few days.

neutrophils

20

What granulocyte releases HISTAMINE and other INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS and contains ANTICOAGULANTS?

basophils

-primarily release histamine

21

______ develop into macrophages at a lower density than neutrophils.

monocytes

22

What is the only granulocyte than can live for years and mounts a direct or immune response?

lymphocyte

direct: cell attack
indirect: antibodies

23

TLR4 agonist can go into the _____ , _____, and ______, where it will bind to toll-like receptors.

Bone, Cartilage, Synovial membrane

24

What happens when TLR4 agonist bind to TLR in cartilage?

It cause the release of cytokines and prostaglandins

25

What happens when TLR4 agonist bind to TLR in bone? (2)

-stimulate osteoBLAST to release cytokines
- stimulate osteoCLAST to undergo resorption (break down of bone)

26

Macrophages contain what ____ and _____ receptors that recognize ____ and _____ respectively.

-Toll-like receptors (TLR): PAMPs and DAMPs

-TNF receptors: selective for TNF

27

What pathway do PAMPs/DAMPs and TNF stimulate (via receptors) in macrophages?

NFkB pathway

28

What happens after the NFkB pathway is stimulated in macrophages?

- macrophage nucleus translocation occurs
-changes transcription and translation
- cause the release of cytokines (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) which cause inflammation

29

T/F?
Cytokines (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8), Bradykinin, Histamine, and Eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes) are all considered SENSORS.

False
- mediators

30

Name the 4 major steps involved in ACUTE inflammatory response.

1. Tissue damage
2. Mediator release
3. Response to mediator release
4. Resolution

31

What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

-Redness
- Pain
-Swelling
- Heat

32

What 4 responses can occur as a result of the release of mediators of inflammation?

-vascular changes
-cellular events
-phagocytosis
-killing/degradation of stimulus

33

What causes redness and heat of the inflamed region?

inflammatory mediators
-kinins
- PGs
-complement (innate system)

34

What causes pain and swelling (edema) of inflamed region?

- increased capillary permeability and exudate to tissues
- PGs and kinins

35

How does increasing capillary permeability EXACERBATE inflammatory cells?

By delivering clotting proteins and complement.

36

4 steps to phagocyte mobilization.

-Leukocytosis
- Margination
- Diapedesis (transmigration)
- Chemotaxis

37

Phagocyte Mobilization
- ________ releases neutrophils from bone marrow in response to leukocytosis-inducing factors from injured cells.

Leukocytosis

38

Phagocyte Mobilization
-during ________ neutrophils cling to walls of capillaries in inflamed area in response to cell adhesion molecules

Margination

39

Phagocyte Mobilization
- ________ is the mechanism by which neutrophils get out the blood vessels into the tissues.

Diapedesis (transmigration)

40

Phagocyte Mobilization
-What is it considered when chemotactic agents promote (+) chemotaxis of neutrophils

Chemotaxis

41

____ play a role in Margination and Rolling while ______ play a role in Adhesion & Spreading and Diapedesis.

Selectins; Integrins

42

Where does the process of leukocyte recruitment occur?

-postcapillary venule

43

The initial step of the leukocyte emigration occurs with ______ molecules.

adhesion molecules
- selections (slow WBCs down) and interns (allow for adhesion)

44

What activates selectins ligands? (3)

- cytokines (TNF, IL-1), histamine,
thrombin

-selectin expression is regulated by cytokines produced in response to infection and injury

-once activated, the rolling and migration process begins

45

What are the 2 main ligands for integrins?

ICAM-1 and VCAM-1

(unregulated by cytokines)

46

T/F?
SELECTINS are responsible for FIRM ADHERENCE of leukocytes to the endothelium.

False
- Integrins

(converted to a high affinity state by chemokine)

47

calor

heat

48

rubor

redness

49

dolor

pain

50

tumor

swelling

51

PRO-inflammatory:
CCL2 (MCP-1) and CCL5 (Rantes) are examples of chemokine released from(3)

monocytes, macrophages, t cells

52

PRO-inflammatory
CXCL8 (IL-8) are examples of chemokine released from

neutrophils

IL-8 released primarily during inflammation

53

bind certain substances found on the stimulus (microbe, antigen)

opsonin

54

T/F Microtubules play a role in the formation of phagolysosomes

TRUE

55

What are the requirements to be a mediator of inflammation ? (3)

-produce inflammation alone
-shown to increase in levels at site of inflammation
-drugs that inhibit activity must reduce inflammation

56

Activation of Hageman factor (XIIa) initiates what other 4 systems?

-thrombin
-bradykinin
-complement
-plasminogen

57

What are the vitamin K dependent pathways?

2, 7, 9, 10

58

What are important properties of eicosanoids? (5)

-act locally
-very broad range of physiological action
-synthesized in all tissues
-converted to inactive metabolite and transported to liver
-very short half-life

59

What cytokines can induce COX-2? (3)

-TNF
-IL-1
-IL-6

60

What can inhibit COX-2?

glucocorticoids

61

What are the most important cytokines in acute inflammation? (2)

TNF and IL-1

62

T/F TNF causes inflammation and organ damage, so it is an excellent pharmacological target

TRUE

63

Tissue destruction is a hallmark of

chronic inflammation