Inflammation (week 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Inflammation (week 2) Deck (35):
1

prostacyclin

(from COX pathway)
produced by endothelial cells
anticoagulant

2

thromboxanes

(from COX pathway)
produced by platelets
promote clotting

3

what does aspirin do to prostacyclin and thromboxane?

inhibits production of them; therefore, acts as an anticoagulant

4

leukotrienes produced by

aracadonic acid + 5-lipoxygenase

5

what do leukotrienes do

induce allergic rxn
play role in chemotaxis of WBCs
increase capillary permeability
bronchoconstriction (asthma)

6

what is given to people who are on an aspirin regimen that need emergency surgery?

vitamin K

7

lipoxins produced by

aracadonic acid + 12-lipoxygenase

8

lipoxins do

inhibit inflammatory activity
inhibit chemotaxis of WBCs
may oppose action of leukotrienes

9

platelet activating factor produced by

vesicles in mast cells
WBCs
endothelial cells

10

platelet activating factor causes

platelet aggregation
vasodilation
assists to enhance chemotaxis of WBCs

11

reactive oxygen species

free radicals that cause enhancement of inflammatory activity
can cause damage in healthy tissue
seen in emohesema

12

antioxidants

oppose the action of free radicals

13

examples of antioxidants

Vitamin C, E, B-complex

14

nitric oside released from

endothelial cells

15

nitric oxide causes

inhibition of several features of the inflammatory response
interference with leukotrienes and TNF
destruction of bacteria

16

cytokines produced by

variety of WBCs
connective tissue cells
endothelial cells

17

primary cytokines involved in inflammation

TNF
IL-1
(produced by activated macrophages)

18

what do cytokines stimulate?

WBC adhesion to capillary walls
movement into tissues
activation of WBCs (attack things that do not belong)
proliferation of fibroblasts

19

fibroblasts

form collagen scar tissue

20

what do cytokines play an important role in?

chronic inflammation, especially rheumatoid arthritis

21

chemokines produced by

a variety of cells in tissue

22

chemokines do

act as chemoattractant for WBCs
set up chemotaxis

23

plasma protein-derived mediators

complement system
coagulation cascade
kinin system

24

complement system composed of

antibodies

25

complement system activated by

antibody attachment to antigen (immune complex)
microbial surface glycoproteins
toxins

26

what does the complement system do?

activate in a chain reaction
amplifies inflammation
stimulating greater release of histamine
enhance chemotaxis of WBCs
promote phagocytosis

27

what will some of the factors that are part of the clotting cascade stimulate?

production of chemokines
activity of COX
adhesion and movement of WBCs in endothelium of capillaries

28

how is kallikrein produced

some of the clotting cascade factors act upon prekallikrein to form kallikrein

29

what does kallikrein do?

enzyme that produces bradykinin from kininogen

30

what does bradykinin do?

increases vascular permeability
stimulate nociceptors
(very similar to prostaglandin)

31

what do thrombin and fibrinolysis (byproducts of the clotting cascade) do?

mostly act of mast cells
amplify inflammatory response in tissue

32

resolution

neutralizing and getting rid of injurious stimulusa

33

causes of chronic inflammation

persistent infection
immune-mediated inflammation
prolonged exposure to toxic agents
overuse
inappropriate stress to connective tissue

34

tendinitis

inflammation of the tendon due to microtears from acute overload with a tensile force that is too heavy or too sudden for tissue to bear

35

tendinosis

degeneration of collagen due to chronic overuse
tendon does not have time to rest and heal
inflammatory cells usually not found in these tendons, therefore, anti-inflammatory meds may not always work