Inflammatory skin, skin tumours and disease of the eye Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Inflammatory skin, skin tumours and disease of the eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammatory skin, skin tumours and disease of the eye Deck (28):
1

What are the common infections of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye?

VZV - trigeminal nerve can cause scarring to the eye

Chlamydia - 2 types:
-trachoma - can cause blindness

- Types D-K - mild disease during birth (infection in genital tract: conjunctivitis)

2

What conditions are associated with development of cataracts in the lens of eye?

Lens becoming opaque
Senile degeneration
Rubella
Downs syndrome
Diabetes mellitus

3

What conditions are associated with retinal infections? What do they cause in adults/children

Toxoplasmosis - cat poo - congenital infection causes severe bilateral impairment, adults - focal inflammatory disease

Taxocara canis - infected dog faeces - can cause localised infection

4

What are the main retinal vascular disease causes?

Diabetic retinopathy
Hypertensive retinopathy
Ischaemic retinopathy

5

What are the two types of macular degeneration? What are they due to?

Dry macular degeneration - age, progressive visual impairment

Wet - new vessel growth beneath retina

6

What are the two tumours that arise from the eye?

Retinoblastoma - loss of RB gene

Melanoma - arise from melanocytes in the eye - treat with surgery (remove eye)

7

What is dermatitis commonly referred to as?

Eczema

8

What are the 3 stages of dermatitis/eczema?

Acute - weeping serous exudate, red skin, small vesicles

Subacute - less exudate, red skin, ITCHY, crusting

Chronic - leathery skin secondary to scratching

9

What is the main microscopic features of dermatitis?

- SPONGIOSIS - oedema in the epidermis

- Hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of epidermis

10

What are the different types of eczema?

Atopic eczema - childhood - type I hypersensitivity reaction

Contact irritant dermatitis - direct injury to skin by irritant e.g. acid

Contact allergic dermatitis - ( e.g. metals) allergens combine with epidermal proteins and become immunogenic

Unknown aetiology

11

What are the clinical characteristics of psoriasis? What is the Auspitz sign?

Red oval plaques occurring in extensor surfaces (knees, elbows, sacrum)

- silvery sales

- Auspitz sign - removing scales will cause small bleeding points

12

What is the distinct microscopic appearance of psoriasis?

Psiariasform hyperplasia
- regular elongated clubbed shaped rete ridges
- thinning epidermis
-Parakeratotic scales

13

What is the pathogenesis of psoriasis?

Massive cell turnover

14

What genetic/environmental factors are associated with psoriasis?

PSORS (genetic)

Stress, trauma, infection, drugs

15

What are the characteristic features of Lupus?

Red scaly skin (sun exposed)

Butterfly rash

Autoimmune disease - effects connective tissues of body (particularly kidneys)

16

What is the presenting feature of dermatomyositis? What systemic disease is it associated with?

Heliotrophic rash - peri-occular oedema and erythema

Visceral cancer

17

How do dermatitis herpetiforms present? What condition are they associated with?

- Small itchy blister

- Associated with coeliacs disease

18

What is acanthosis nigricans? What disease is it associated with?

Dark warty lesions under armpits

Visceral malignancy

19

What is necrobiosis lipoidica? What disease is it associated with?

Red and yellow plaques in legs

Diabetes

20

What are the clinical features of basal cell carcinoma?

- Most common skin tumour

- due to sun exposure (mainly)

- Rarely metastasise

- Nodule -> ulcer (rodent ulcer) (look like basement cells!!)

21

What are the clinical features of squamous cell carcinoma?

- UV radiation/actinic - mostly occurs of face and hands

- Microscopic apprende = look like squamous cells!

- Nodules -> ulcerate

- Rarely metastasise

22

What usually precede SSC?

acinitic keratosis

23

What is the function of melanin>

Protect epidermal cell nuclei from UV radiation

24

What are naevi?

moles - benign melanocytes

25

What are the distinguishing features of melanomas vs naevi?

Asymmetrical
Borders uneven
Colour variation
Diameter >6mm

26

What are the risk factors for melanoma?

-Sun exposure - short, intermittent
-Race - celtic red hair, blue eyed, don't tan
-Family history
-Giant congenital naevi

27

What are the prognostic factors for melanoma?

Breslow thickness (thicker the tumour, worse the prognosis)

Site - BANS - back, arms, neck, scalp - poorer prognosis

28

What is the treatment for melanomas?

Excision of tumour and lymph if invaded

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