Influenza & RSV Flashcards Preview

Clin Med I - Pulmonary > Influenza & RSV > Flashcards

Flashcards in Influenza & RSV Deck (32):
1

Define influenza

- highly contagious airborne disease
- acute febrile illness

2

Describe influenza viruses

- encapsulated, single-stranded RNA
- family Orthomyxoviridae

3

What are the most significant immunologic surface proteins of influenza?

- hemagglutinin (H)
- neuraminidase (N)

4

What is the function of the influenza surface proteins?

- determine virulence

5

What is the MOA of hemagglutinin?

- binds to respiratory cells allowing cellular infection

6

What is the MOA of neuraminidase?

- cleaves the bond that holds newly replicated virions in the cell surface, permitting the spread of infection

7

What allows for antigenic drift?

- poor error checking of viral RNA polymerase

8

Define antigenic drift

- inaccurate viral RNA polymerase produces point mutations in error-prone gene regions

9

Define antigenic shift

- genes resorted between 2 strains

10

What is the presentation of influenza

- very abrupt
- fever/chills
- sore throat
- H/A
- ptosis
- myalgias
- URI type

11

What are complications of influenza?

- PNA/2ndary bacterial PNA
- myositis
- myocarditis
- pericarditis

12

What is the workup for influenza?

- viral culture
- rapid diagnostic test
- PCR
- serologic testing

13

What is the tx for influenza?

- antiviral drugs
- isolation
- vaccines

14

Define bronchiolitis

- lower airway (bronchioles) viral infection

15

What is the etiology of bronchiolitis?

- MC: RSV

16

What is the incubation period for bronchiolitis?

- 1-2d
- not uncommon s/p well child visit

17

What are the S&S of bronchiolitis?

- fever
- rhinorrhea
- cough
- white frothy d/c

18

What is seen on PE of bronchiolitis?

- wheezing
- tachypnea

19

What diagnostics can be ordered for bronchiolitis?

- CXR (variable) will demonstrated hyperinflation

20

T/F: Bronchiolitis is highly communicable.

- True ==> hand hygiene!

21

What is the tx for bronchiolitits?

- observation
- supplemental O2
- parenteral fluids
- ? bronchodilators/steroids

22

How is bronchiolitis prevented?

- hand hygine

23

What is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children?

- RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)

24

What are the S&S of RSV?

- low grade fever
- cough
- tachypnea
- cyanosis
- retractions
- wheezing
- apneic episodes
- not eating or sleeping
- *profuse white, watery d/c*

25

What is a staccato cough associated with?

- Chlamydia trichoma

26

What diagnostic tests can be done for RSV?

- CBC
- pulse ox
- culture/ antigen testing/PCR

27

What is the tx of RSV?

- supportive care
- steroids
- bronchodilators
- alpha agonists
- racemic Epi
- ribavirin
- palivizumab

28

Treating young children with pertussis with _____ has a risk of _______ _______.

- macrolides
- hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

29

Cough w/o fever for couple weeks, now vomiting after early morning cough. Diagnose & tx me!

- pertussis
- macrolides

30

14 y/o w/ disruptive, frequent daytime barking nonproductive cough, no fever cough is not heard at night. PE?

- probably nothing
- quiet expiratory phase

31

Toddler awoke barking, struggling to catch her breath, mild fever, stridor & cough resolved on the drive to ER. CXR shows steeple sign. What am I and what is the tx?

- croup
- cool moist air, dexamethasone when very bad

32

How do you treat Mycoplasma pneumonia?

- macrolides