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Flashcards in INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Deck (70):
1

Which IT personnel roles should always be segregated?

Operators

Programmers

Librarians

2

What are the duties of a systems analyst?

Designs or purchases IT system

Responsible for flowcharts

Liaison between Users and Programmers

Note: Think IT Manager

3

What is the primary duty of a Systems Administrator?

A Systems Administrator controls database access.

4

What are the duties of a Systems Programmer?

Writes- Updates- Maintains- & Tests software- systems- and compilers

5

Which duties should a Systems Programmer NOT have?

In order to maximize internal control- a Systems Programmer should NOT have application programming duties/abilities or be an Operator on the system.

6

What are the duties of a Systems Operator?

Schedules and Monitors Jobs

Runs IT Help Desk

7

What duties should a System Operator NOT have?

For internal control purposes- they should not be a Programmer on the system.

8

If it is not possible to segregate duties in an IT System- what actions should be taken to compensate for internal control purposes?

Include Computer Logs.

Control Group should review the logs.

9

What is the purpose of a Management Information System (MIS)?

To assist with decision making.

10

What is an Accounting Information System (AIS)?

A type of Management Information System (MIS) that processes accounting transactions.

11

What are the characteristics of an Executive Information System (EIS)?

Specialized for Company Executive needs

Assists with Strategy Only

No Decision-Making Capabilities

12

What are the characteristics of an Expert System (ES)?

Computer uses reasoning

Structured

No human interpretation needed

13

What are the characteristics of a Decision Support System (DSS)?

Computer provides data

Gives Interactive Support

Human interpretation needed

14

What are the characteristics of an Ad Hoc computer report?

User initiates the report.

The report is created upon demand.

15

When are Exception reports generated?

Exception reports are produced when Edit Tests- Check Digits- or Self-Checking Digits identify a problem

16

What is a query?

A type of Ad Hoc report- initiated by a user.

17

What is End-User Computing?

The User develops and executes their own application.

18

What is the primary benefit of E-commerce?

E-commerce makes business transactions easier.

19

What are the risks of E-commerce?

Compromised data or theft.

Less paper trail for auditors.

20

What are the benefits of Electronic Data Interchange?

Uses globally-accepted standards

Efficient

21

What is a File Server?

A file server stores shared programs and documents.

22

What is the purpose of a Database?

Located on a File Server- a Database allows users to share documents.

23

What is the purpose of a LAN (Local Area Network)?

It connects computers in close proximity.

24

What is the purpose of a WAN (Wide Area Network)?

It connects computers that are far apart.

25

What are the characteristics of a VAN (Value-Added Network)?

Privately-owned Network

Serves as 3rd Party Between 2 Companies

Routes EDI Transactions

Accepts wide range of Protocols

Very Costly

26

What is the purpose of a Firewall?

Prevents unauthorized access to a network.

27

What are the characteristics of a virus?

Takes over a computer

Needs a host program to run

28

What are the characteristics of a computer worm?

Takes over multiple computers

Doesn't need a host program to run

29

What is the purpose of Automated Equipment Controls?

They prevent and detect hardware errors.

30

What is RAM?

Random Access Memory.

Internal memory in the computer used during immediate processing.

31

What is a CPU?

Computer Processing Unit

It processes commands within a computer.

32

What is Job Control Language?

It schedules and allocates system resources.

33

What are examples of input devices?

Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Magnetic Ink Reader
Magnetic Tape Reader
EDI
Point of Sale Scanner

34

What are examples of Output Devices?

Speakers

Monitors

Printers

35

What are the characteristics of Magnetic Tape storage?

Sequential Access - Sorts data in order

Slower data retrieval

Header Label prevents Operator error by loading wrong tape

External Labels prevent accidental destruction by operator

36

What are the characteristics of Magnetic Disks?

Random Access - Finds data in random spots

Faster data retrieval

Uses Boundary Protection for data

37

What is a Gateway?

Connects one network to another

Note: the Internet is connected by Gateways

38

What are Parity Checks?

A control that detects internal data errors.

A bit is added to each character- it checks to see if a bit was lost.

39

What is an Echo Check?

Transmitted data is returned to the sender for verification (it echoes back to the sender)

40

What is a Change Control?

It authorizes program changes and approves program test results.

41

What is security software?

Software that controls access to IT systems.

Note: Don't confuse this with anti-virus software

42

What is the purpose of a Digital Signature?

It confirms a message has not been altered.

43

List the types of computers from smallest to largest

PDA/Smartphone/Tablet

Microcomputer - PC- Laptop (cost-effective)

Minicomputer - Like a Mainframe- but smaller

Mainframe - Large computer with terminals attached

Supercomputer - Very powerful and very big

44

What are the units of computer data from smallest to largest?

Bit - 1 (on) and 0 (off)
Byte - 8 bits to a byte/character
Field - group of related characters/bytes (i.e. Name- Zip Code- Serial #)
Record - Group of related fields (i.e. Member name- address- phone number)
File - Group of related records (i.e. Membership directory)

45

What is the duty of a design engineer?

Determine language used for a specific computer- on a computer-to-computer basis

46

What are object programs?

Programs written in base computer language- not similar to English.

47

How can source programs be recognized?

They are written in a language close to English.

48

What is the purpose of a Compiler?

Takes Source language (English) and converts to Object (Computer) Language

49

How does Online Analytical Processing work?

It uses a Data Warehouse to support management decision making.

50

What is Data Mining?

Using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition to analyze data stores within a Data Warehouse.

51

What is the purpose of online transaction processing?

To process a company's routine transactions.

52

What are the characteristics of batch processing?

Data held- updates multiple files all at once

Leaves a better audit trail

Uses Grandfather-Father-Son backup (3 levels of backup kept in 3 locations)

53

What does an output control check for?

Checks to see if output data is valid- distributed and used in an authorized manner.

54

What does a processing control check?

Checks if data processing produced proper output

55

What is a hash total?

An input control number- a meaningless sum of values included in the input.

Example would be summing a list of SSNs to make sure the data is the same once entered as it was prior to input into the system.

56

What is a validity check?

Checks to see if data in existing tables or files belongs in the set

For example- is there a # in an alpha-only field or a letter in a numeric-only field

57

What is a limit check?

Checks to see if numbers surpass a certain limit- i.e. in an age field is the number greater than 110.

58

What is a check digit?

An input control that adds an identification number to a set of
digits - usually at the end

59

What is a field check?

An input check that prevents invalid characters- i.e. checks for alphabetic letters in a SSN field

60

What is a Hot Site?

A disaster recovery system where if the main system goes down- a Hot Site is ready to take over immediately.

61

What is a Cold Site?

If a main system goes down- a Cold Site will take time to get set up and running.

62

What is the most common database language?

SQL - Structured Query Language

63

What is a Data Definition Language?

Defines SQL Database

Controls SQL Tables

64

What is a Data Manipulation Language?

Queries SQL Database tables

65

What is a Data Control Language?

Controls Access to SQL Database

66

What are the characteristics of a Relational Database?

Logical structure

Uses rows and columns similar to spreadsheet

67

What are the characteristics of a Hierarchical Database?

Has various levels

Uses trees to store data

68

What are the advantages of a database?

Data is more accessible

Reduced redundancy

69

What are the disadvantages of a database?

Cost of installation

Skilled personnel required to maintain

70

What are the components of a database?

Desktop client

Application Server

Database Server

Think: Your desktop computer runs applications and saves to a database