Inherited and Acquired Immune Deficiencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Inherited and Acquired Immune Deficiencies Deck (44):
1

Innate immune system

- anatomic and physical barriers
- phagocytic cells (macrophages, DC, neutrophils)

2

Adaptive immune system

Recognizes/eliminates pathogens
- lymphocyte is major cell type
- T and B cells

3

Primary immunodeficiency diseases

Inherited defect for immune system components
- disease due to defect in particular protein or glycoprotein

4

Features of primary immunodeficiency

- affects a particular breed
- occurs in young littermates
- chronic recurrent infections
- infections of multiple body sites
- failure of infections to respond to standard antibiotic therapy

5

Primary immunodeficiency classifications

- dominant
- recessive: most common
- x linked

6

X linked immunodeficiency

Recessive X linked defect
- males affected
- females are carriers

7

Dominant immunodeficiency

Anyone inheriting the abnormal allele is affected
- are less severe and cause a reduction in function rather than a loss of function

8

Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency

Autosomal recessive
- seen in Irish Red and White Setters
- neutrophils do not express integrin surface molecules, so they do not stick to endothelial cells
= bacteria in tissues survive and multiply more readily

9

Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency highpoints

- persistent infection with extracellular bacteria
- infection cannot be cleared due to defective neutrophil function

10

Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency symptoms

Puppies present with recurrent infections
- tend to have a high WBC count
- short lived response to antibiotics

11

SCID in foals

Severe combined immunodeficiency
- arabian foals
- autosomal recessive

12

SCID pathophysiology

Affected foals lack functional B and T cells
- incapable of producing antigen specific immune response

13

SCID genetics

Deletion in gene encoding a DNA-dependent protein kinase
- kinase is essential for T and B cells to complete gene rearrangements, which encode for surface antigen-specific receptor complexes

14

SCID foal symptoms

Foals appear normal at birth
- time of onset is determined by extent of transfer of passive immunity and extent of exposure to pathogens
- foals become susceptible as maternal immunity wears off

15

Most SCID affected foals present with ____ infections

Respiratory

16

SCID diagnosis

- blood work: show severely depressed lymphocyte count
- undetectable IgM concentrations by 3-4 weeks
- need to DNA test to confirm

17

No 2 _____ horses should be bred when trying to prevent SCIDS

Heterozygous

18

X linked SCID

Males
- bassett hounds and corgis
- peripheral T cell lymphopenia
- B cells do not undergo isotype switching to IgG
- reduced production of NK cells

19

XSCID genetics

Mutation in gene encoding for IL-2 receptor
- dysfunctional IL-2 receptor
- defect in T cell function and development

20

XSCID clinical presentation

Appear normal at birth due to maternal antibodies
- failure to thrive
- increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections

21

IgA deficiency in dogs

Recurrent upper respiratory infections, with occasional otitis and dermatitis

22

IgA deficiency pathophysiology

Infection begins in the first few month of life
- can also be present in adults
- 20% of dogs diagnosed before 1 yr will revert to normal by 12-18 months
- 90% of dogs diagnosed after 1 yr will remain with the disease

23

C3 deficiency

Reported in Brittany Spaniels
- autosomal recessive
- homozygous with no detectable C3
- heterozygous with 50% normal C3 and animals are clinically normal

24

C3 is important for ____

Opsonizing bacteria

25

C3 deficiency clinical signs

Only seen in homozygous dogs
- increased susceptibility to bacterial infections
- supportive treatment

26

Cyclic hematopoiesis in Gray Collie

Autosomal recessive disorder
- severe cyclic neutropenia, platelet mediated bleeding, recurrent bacterial infection, coat dilutional color

27

Cyclic hematopoiesis clincial

Arrest of hematopoiesis at regular 11-14 day intervals
- neutropenia lasts 3-4 days and is followed by neutrophilia
- dogs rarely live past neonatal period

28

Secondary immunodeficiency diseases

Develop due to a secondary problem, not from immune defect at birth
- causes: infectious agents, drugs, and endocrine diseases
- horses: failure of passive transfer

29

HIV

RNA virus
- transferred via body fluids
- causes slow progressing diseases

30

HIV pathophysiology

Virus recognizes and binds to CD4 = cell entrance and replication of virus
- leads to infection of CD4+ T cells = activation and production of infectious virions

31

What cell types express CD4?

Macrophages, DC, and CD4+ T cells

32

HIV causes a slow decline of _____

CD4+ T cells and progression to AIDS

33

CD4+ cells have a critical role in promoting and maintaining ______

Cell mediated and humoral immune responses

34

What are the first sites of infection for HIV?

Oral and respiratory tracts

35

FIV

Lentevirus transmitted by cat bites
- initial viral replication and decline in CD4+ T cells = acute phase of infection
- progress to latent asymptomatic period followed by decline in CD4+ T cell numbers

36

FIV pathophysiology

With decreased CD4+ cells you get cytokine alterations and progressive immune dysfunction develop
- failing immune system allows for opportunistic infections, neoplasia, and wasting

37

_____ is common in FIV infected cats

Lymphoma

38

FIV management

- keep indoors and separated
- regular exams with blood work
- if sick, prompt identification of the secondary illness with treatment

39

Canine parvovirus

DNA virus
- trophism for rapidly dividing cells (GIT, bone marrow, lymphoid tissues)

40

Parvo timeline

Infection in GIT --> enteritis --> intestinal crypt necrosis, increased permeability and decreased absorption --> diarrhea --> mild = recovory OR severe = secondary infection and sepsis (DIC, death)

41

Infection in bone marrow

Destruction of leukocyte and lymphoid precursors --> neutropenia and lymphopenia = secondary immunosuppression --> secondary bacterial infections (bacteremia and septicemia)

42

Parvo clinical signs

Sudden onset of foul-smelling, bloody diarrhea
- vomiting
- fever
- ADR

43

Parvo treatment

- restore fluid and electrolyte balance
- prevent secondary infections
- control secondary complications

44

Secondary non-infectious causes of immunosuppression

- failure of passive transfer
- marrow diseases
- endocrine diseases
- immunosuppressive agents
- chemotherapy