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Flashcards in Inorganic Deck (97):
1

Definition of 1st I.E:


Definition of 2nd I.E:

1st I.E: The energy required to remove 1 mole of e⁻ from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1⁺ ions.


2nd I.E: The energy required to remove 1 mole of e⁻ from 1 mole of gaseous 1⁺ ions to form 1 mole of gaseous 2⁺ ions.

2

What is the trend in Ionisation.Energy across periods? And Why?

▪️ Increases

Because:

N.C ⬆️

Shielding remains SAME

A.R ⬇️

Therefore, more energy required to remove e⁻

3

Why does I.E drop from Be to B?

🔘Borons e⁻ is in a higher energy 2p orbital.

🔘 This orbital is further away from the nucleus

🔘 Little more shielding from the 2s orbital

Therefore, less energy required to remove Borons e⁻

4

Why does I.E drop from N to O?

Electron repulsion in 2p orbital between O & B

🔘 And Shielding remains SAME!!

Therefore, it is easier to remove O's e⁻

5

What is the trend in M.P/ B.P across periods 2 & 3?

Increases then Decreases

Because :

(Increases): Giant Metallic --> Giant Covalent

(Decreases): Giant Covalent --> Simple Covalent

6

What are the complete elemental forms of :

N
P
O
S
F/Cl/Br/I

N₂
P₄
O₂
S₈
F₂ ⁄Cl₂ ⁄Br₂ ⁄I₂

7

Name the 3 types of Inter.Molecular.Forces (IMF) that apply to covalent bonding only and arrange in order of weakest first.

Van der Waals
Dipole-Dipole
Hydrogen Bonding

8

1. Temporary D-D force applies to?

2. Permanent D-D force applies to?

3. H-bonding only occurs between H:???

1. Non Polar molecules e.g Cl₂ ( Cl⁺➖Cl⁻)

2. Polar molecules e.g. HBr (H⁺➖Br⁻)

3. H⁺➖N⁻
H⁺➖O⁻
H⁺➖F⁻

9

Which bonding has low or high M.P/B.P? :

Covalent (Simple)
Covalent (Giant)
Ionic (Giant)
Metallic (Giant)

Covalent (simple) =
Low M.P/B.P

Covalent (Giant)
Ionic (Giant) = High M.P/B.P
Metallic (Giant)

10

Why is Group.2 called Alkaline Earth Metals?

As they form compounds which are alkaline.

11

What is the trend of Atomic.Radius down Group.2?

Atomic Radius increases as metallic ions/elements get bigger down the group.

12

What is the I.E trend down Group 2?

I.E decreases down the group as
A.R ⬆️
Shielding ⬆️
N.C ⬆️ : But it is outweighed by the other 2 factors. Due to Larger atoms

🔴 MORE REACTIVE!!!

13

Why does Reactivity Increase down Group.2?

Due to elements losing 2 e⁻ which becomes easier down the group due to I.E decreasing.

Therefore Reactivity increases!

14

What is the trend in M.P/B.P down Group 2?

M.P/B.P Decreases down Group 2 due to:

▪️ metallic ions getting bigger - A.R Increases

▪️ Smaller Charge/Volume ratio - meaning e⁻s are spread out further

Therefore, there is a reduced electrostatic attraction between the metallic ions and sea of delocalised e⁻s .
So it requires less energy to break the bonds.

15

Ba(s) + 2H₂O →

Ba(OH)₂(aq) + H₂(g)

16

Mg(s) + H₂O →

MgO(s) + H₂(g)

17

2Be(s) + O₂(g) →

2BeO(s)

18

Be(s) + Cl₂(g) →

BeCl₂(s)

19

How do the solubilities of Group 2 deviate down the group?

🔹SO₄²⁻
♻️CO₃²⁻
♦️OH⁻

SO₄²⁻ Decrease down

CO₃²⁻ Decrease down

OH⁻ Increase down

E.g. BaSO₄ = Insoluble
BaCO₃ = Insoluble

Ba(OH)₂ = Soluble

20

Group 2 Oxides can act as bases:

🔸 MgO + H₂O → ?

🔹 MgO + 2HCl → ?

♦️ Mg(OH)₂ + 2HCl → ?

🔸 Mg²⁺ + 2OH⁻

🔹 MgCl₂ + H₂O

♦️MgCl₂ + 2H₂O

21

A strict test for group 2 SO₄²⁻ ?

Add HCl + BaCl₂ =
ppt forms

22

Why do we add HCl to BaCl₂?

The acidic HCl removes any impurities and Carbonates (CO₃²⁻) that lurk around in (aq) preventing them from reacting with BaCl₂ to form other ppt which is not a true test for sulphates. !

23

What are the uses for:

🔘Ca(OH)₂
🔘Mg(OH)₂
🔘BaSO₄
🔘MgSO₄

?

✔️Ca(OH)₂ = Neutralise acidic soil

✔️Mg(OH)₂ = Indigestion remedies

✔️BaSO₄ = 'Barium Meals'... X-Ray

✔️MgSO₄ = Epsom Salts/Mild Laxative

24

Properties of Halogens-
What are + the standard states of:

🔸Fluorine ?
Chlorine ?
Bromine ?
Iodine ?

F₂ (g) : Pale yellow gas
Cl₂ (g) : Green gas
Br₂ (l) : Red / Brown liquid
I₂ (s) : Dark Grey solid / Purple Fumes

25

What is the trend in Atomic Radius / Ionic Radius down Group 7?

Increases

Due to more Shielding

26

What is the trend in M.P/B.P down Group 7?

Increases

Due to larger atoms
Which means more e⁻s
So more van der Waals between molecules which becomes stronger!

27

What is the trend in Electronegativity down Group 7? And Why?

Decreases

▪️larger atoms : bonding e⁻s further away from nucleus

▪️More shielding between nucleus & bonding e⁻s

These 2 factors outweigh Increased N.C due to more protons.

↪️ Less attraction bet. Nucleus & bonding e⁻s.

28

What is an :

Oxidising agent ?

Reducing agent ?

Oxidising agent =
e⁻ gainer

Reducing agent =
e⁻ loser (donor)

29

Down Group 7, Reducing agents get (worse/better) and Reduce H₂SO₄ (more/less).

✔️Better

✔️More

30

Test for halide ions -
Reactions w/ H₂SO₄:

Name the 4 reducing products of H₂SO₄ in order

1. NaHSO₄
2. SO₂
3. S
4. H₂S

31

🅰️ NaCl/NaBr/NaI + H₂SO₄ →

NaHSO₄ + HCl/HBr/HI⤵️ (White Misty Fumes)

32

🅱️ 2Br⁻ + H₂SO₄ + 2H⁺ →

Br₂ + SO₂ + 2H₂O

33

© 6I⁻ + H₂SO₄ + 6H⁺ →

3I₂ + S + 4H₂O

34

D) 8I⁻ + H₂SO₄ + 8H⁺ →

4I₂ + H₂S + 4H₂O

35

Test for halide ions-
Using Silver Nitrate:

What do we add first before adding Acidified AgNO₃? And why?


🔹Add Dil. HNO₃

Because: it removes any soluble carbonates (CO₃²⁻) and hydroxides (OH⁻) --> these have the potential to react with AgNO₃ to form insoluble Ag₂CO₃ & AgOH... mixing all these ppt's = DISASTER!!!!

36

1. AgNO₃ + F⁻ →


2. AgNO₃ + Cl⁻ →

3. AgNO₃ + Br⁻ →

4. AgNO₃ + I⁻ →

1. NO ppt!(as F⁻ is soluble)


2. AgCl[White ppt] + NO₃⁻

3. AgBr[Cream ppt] + NO₃⁻

4. AgI [Yellow ppt] + NO₃⁻

37

Which ppt dissolves in Dilute NH₃?

Cl⁻ or Br⁻ or I⁻

Cl⁻

38

Adding Conc. NH₃ to the remaining ppt's dissolves which halide?

Br⁻ or I⁻

Br⁻

39

Halogen Disproportionation Reactions:

Cl₂ + H₂O ⇌

HClO + HCl

40

In Sunlight:

2Cl₂ + 2H₂O →

4HCl + O₂

41

Chlorination of pools:
NaClO(s) + H₂O →

-------------------------------------

Reaction w/ NaOH:
Cl₂ + 2NaOH →

HClO + Na⁺ + OH⁻

--------------------------

NaClO + NaCl + H₂O

42

Disproportionation definition :

When a species is being oxidised and reduced at the same time in the same reaction

43

Period 3 - The Elements

Na =
Structure =
---------------------
Mg =
Structure =
---------------------
Al =
Structure =
---------------------
Si =
Structure =
---------------------
P₄ =
Structure =
---------------------
S₈ =
Structure =
---------------------
Cl₂ =
Structure =
---------------------
Ar =
Structure =




Na = soft METAL
Bond = Giant Metallic
---------------------
Mg = silver coloured METAL
Structure = Giant Metallic
---------------------
Al = silver coloured METAL
Structure = Giant Metallic
---------------------
Si = shiny solid NON-METAL
Structure = Giant Covalent
---------------------
P₄ = Red/White solid NON-METAL
Structure = Simple Covalent
---------------------
S₈ = Yellow Solid NON-METAL
Structure = Simple Covalent
---------------------
Cl₂ = Green gas NON-METAL
Structure = Simple Covalent
---------------------
Ar = colourless gas NON-METAL
Mono-Atomic




44

Why is chlorine useful?

🔻Kill bacteria in water
🔻Used to make bleach (NaClO)

45

How reactive is Na with water?

2Na + 2H₂O(l) →

What is the pH of the product formed?

Vigorous

2NaOH(aq) + H₂(g)

pH 13-14 Alkaline

46

How reactive is Mg with water?

Mg + 2H₂O(l) →

What is the pH of the product formed?

Slow w/ cold water

Mg(OH)₂(aq) + H₂(g)

pH 10 Alkaline

47

How reactive is Mg with steam?

Mg + H₂O(g) →

What is the pH of the product formed?

Faster w/ heat + steam

MgO(s) + H₂(g)

pH 9 Slightly Alkaline

48

How does Cl react with water?

Cl₂(g) + H₂O(l) →

What is the pH of the product formed?

Dissolves

HClO(aq) + HCl(aq)

pH 1-2 Acid

49

Period 3 reactions w/ Oxygen:

Na : Colour?
▪️2Na + ½O₂ →
-----------------------
Mg : Colour?
▪️Mg + ½O₂ →
-----------------------
Al : Colour?
▪️2Al + 1½O₂ →
-----------------------
▪️Si + O₂ →
-----------------------
P : Colour?
▪️Bright White Flame
-----------------------
S : Colour?
▪️S + O₂ →
🔹SO₂ + ½O₂ →

Na - Yellow Flame
Na₂O
-----------------------
Mg - Bright White Flame
MgO
-----------------------
Al - Bright White Flame
▪️Al₂O₃ (slow)
-----------------------
▪️SiO₂ (slow)
-----------------------
P - Bright White Flame
▪️P₄O₁₀
-----------------------
S - Blue Flame
▪️SO₂
🔹SO₃

50

Period 3 Oxides:

Na₂O : Structure
MgO : Structure
Al₂O₃ : Structure

SiO₂ : Structure

P₄O₁₀ : Structure
SO₂ : Structure


Na₂O : Giant Metallic
MgO : Giant Metallic
Al₂O₃ : Giant Metallic

SiO₂ : Giant Covalent

P₄O₁₀ : Simple Covalent
SO₂ : Simple Covalent

51

Na₂O : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸 Na₂O + H₂O → pH?

MgO : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸MgO + H₂O → pH?

Al₂O₃ : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸
SiO₂ : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸


P₄O₁₀ : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸P₄O₁₀ + 6H₂O → pH?

SO₂ : (SolubleInsoluble)
🔸 SO₂ + H₂O → pH?

SO₃ : (SolubleInsoluble)
🔸SO₃ + H₂O → pH?

Na₂O : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸 2NaOH -> pH = 14

MgO : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸 Mg(OH)₂ -> pH = 10

🔺Al₂O₃ :
🔴Insoluble in H₂O
🔻SiO₂ :


P₄O₁₀ : (Soluble/Insoluble)
🔸4H₃PO₄ -> pH = 0-2

SO₂ : (SolubleInsoluble)
🔸H₂SO₃ -> pH = 0-2

SO₃ : (SolubleInsoluble)
🔸H₂SO₄ -> pH= 0-2

52

Definition : Amphoteric

Where a compound (especially a metal oxide/hydroxide) able to react both as a base and acid

53

Neutralisation of period 3 Oxides:

Identify which oxides are Basic/ Amphoteric/ Acidic :

Na₂O
MgO
Al₂O₃
SiO₂
P₄O₁₀
SO₂

🔵Basic Oxides ;
1. Na₂O
2.MgO

☯️Amphoteric Oxides ;
Al₂O₃

🔴Acidic Oxides ;
1.SiO₂
2.P₄O₁₀
3. SO₂
4. SO₃



54

🔵Basic Oxides ;

1. Na₂O + H₂SO₄ →

2. MgO + 2HCl →

1. Na₂SO₄ + H₂O

2. MgCl₂ + H₂O

55

☯️Amphoteric Oxides

Al₂O₃ [Acting as a Base] :
Al₂O₃ + 6HCl →

Al₂O₃ [Acting as an Acid] :
Al₂O₃ + 2NaOH + 3H₂O →

[Base] : 2AlCl₃ + 3H₂O

[Acid] : 2NaAl(OH)₄

⬇️(Notice NO Water is
produced!)

56

🅰️cidic Oxides ;

1. SiO₂ + 2NaOH →

2. P₄O₁₀+ 12NaOH →

3. SO₂ + 2NaOH →
3b. + NaOH →

4. SO₃ + 2NaOH →

1. Na₂SiO₃ + H₂O

2. 4Na₃PO₄ + 6H₂O

3. Na₂SO₃ + H₂O
3b. NaHSO₃

4. Na₂SO₄ + H₂O

57


Write the simplified electronic configuration for
➖Cr

➖Cu

Cr = [Ar] 4s¹ 3d⁵

Cu = [Ar] 4s¹ 3d¹⁰

58


Write the simplified electronic configuration for

Mn

ℹ️ Mn²⁺

Mn = [Ar] 4s² 3d⁵

ℹ️ Mn²⁺ = [Ar] 3d⁵

59

What is a Complex?

A molecule with a T.M ion in the middle with ligands dative covalently bonded to them

🙂

60

What is a Ligand?

Molecule,Atom or ion that donates a pair of electrons to a central metal ion.

61

What is a coordination number?

Number of Coordinate bonds

65

Intro to Transition Metals -

There is a difference between D-BLOCK and TRANSITION METALS!

Define Transition Metals :

Define D-BLOCK elements :

T.M = elements which form STABLE IONS that have a PARTIALLY FILLED d-oribital.

D-Block = Elements that has its OUTER MOST ELECTRONS in the d-orbital

66

Which 2 elements from the D-Block are not Transition.Metals?

Sc and Zn

67

Energy absorbed can be calculated using: ?

∆E= hv

Energy = Planck's Const. x frequency

68

Types Of Ligands:-

Monodentate: 1 L.P
Small :
Large :

Bidentate: 2 L.P
1.
2.
3.

Multidentate:

[Monodentate]:
Small = H₂O₎ NH₃/OH⁻₎ CN⁻

Large = Cl⁻

[Bidentate]:
1. Ethanedioate
2. (en) / ethane 1,2-diamine
3. Benzene 1,2-diol

[Multidentate]:
EDTA⁴⁻ - CHELATE EFFECT
(Haem)- found in red blood cells



69

Coloured Ions -

🌗 Ligands...?... d-orbitals

Features that cause change in ∆E...




Ligands SPLIT d-orbitals!

〰Type of Metal
〰Type of Ligand
〰Oxidation State
〰Co-Ordination No.

70

💠 Colour depends on....?

💠Colour depends on energy gap ∆E -> which depends on oxidation state

71

OxidationNo.|Species|Col.
| |
5️⃣ | |
--------------------------
| |
4️⃣ | |
-------------------------------
| |
3️⃣ | |
-------------------------------
| |
2️⃣ | |

V²⁺

OxidationNo.|Species|Col.
| |
5️⃣ | VO₂⁺ | YELLOW🔸
--------------------------
| |
4️⃣ | VO ²⁺ | BLUE 🔹
-------------------------------
| |
3️⃣ | V³⁺ | GREEN💚
-------------------------------
| |
2️⃣ | |


72

Why are Transition Metal Ions Coloured?

©
©
©

At a certain frequency:
© e⁻ move from ground state to excited state
© Light is absorbed
© Different colour of light is transmitted

73

When drawing Metal Complex Shapes, remember to:?

Use Dative Covalent Bonds pointing to the Central Metal Atom/[Ion]

74

Complexes can show ...?

Optical Isomerism too!

75

OxidationNo.|Species|Col
5️⃣ | |
--------------------------
4️⃣ | |
--------------------------
3️⃣ | |
--------------------------
2️⃣ | |


OxidationNo.|Species|Col
5️⃣ | VO₂⁺ | 💛
--------------------------
4️⃣ | VO ²⁺ | 💙
--------------------------
3️⃣ | V³⁺ | 💚
--------------------------
2️⃣ | V²⁺ | 💜

76

🐈alysis :-

Define Homogenous catalysts..

What do you form with homogenous catalysts only, during a reaction?

Homo. Cat. = Same phase as reactants

An INTERMEDIATE is formed in between!

77

What homogenous catalyst is used in the reaction between
S₂O₈²⁻ + I⁻ ?

Catalyst = Fe²⁺

78

Complete the equations:

1. S₂O₈²⁻ + 2Fe²⁺ →

2. 2Fe³⁺ + 2I⁻ →

Overall: S₂O₈²⁻ + 2I⁻ → 2SO₄²⁻ + I₂
[N.B. -The Catalyst not incl. in ionic eq]

1. 2SO₄²⁻ + 2Fe³⁺

2. I₂ + 2Fe²⁺

79

Define Heterogeneous Catalysts..

Name the 3 processes that use heterogeneous catalysts and name the catalysts used for each process.

Hetero. Cat = Different phase to reactants

🌐 Haber Process (NH₃)
- Cat. Fe(s)

🌐 Contact Process (H₂SO₄)
- Cat. V₂O₅(s)

🌐 Methanol Process
- Cat. Cr₂O₃(s)

80

Haber Process:

N₂ + 3H₂ →

2NH₃

81

Contact Process:

1.V₂O₅ + SO₂ →

2.V₂O₄ + ½O₂ →

SO₃ + H₂O → H₂SO₄

1. V₂O₄ + SO₃

2. V₂O₅

82

Methanol Process:

CO + 2H₂ →

CH₃OH

83

Define Autocatalysis..

1. 2MnO₄⁻ + 5C₂O₄²⁻ + 16H⁺→

2. 4Mn²⁺ + MnO₄⁻ + 8H⁺→

3. 2Mn³⁺ + C₂O₄²⁻ →

When a PRODUCT catalyses the reaction

1. 2Mn²⁺ + 10CO₂ + 8H₂O

2. 5Mn³⁺ + 4H₂O

3. 2Mn²⁺ + 2CO₂

84

Redox Titrations -

1. ?

2. ?

3. Calculate MOLES of chemical in burette

4. Calculate MOLES of chemical in flask (25cm³)

5. Work out MOLES in original soln

6. Work out Mass/Conc. of ORIGINAL sample ...... M= molxMr | C = n/v

1. Write out 2 ½ equations

2. Combine to work out full IONIC EQUATION

85

[Cu(H₂O)₆]²⁺ + 2OH⁻ →

[Cu(H₂O)₄(OH)₂] + 2H₂O

86

[Cu(H₂O)₄(OH)₂] + 2NH₃ →

[Cu(H₂O)₄(OH)₂] + NH₄⁺

87

[Cu(H₂O)₄(OH)₂] + 4NH₃ →

[Cu(H₂O)₂(NH₃)₄]²⁺ + 2OH⁻ + 2H₂O

88

[Cu(H₂O)₆]²⁺ + CO₃²⁻

CuCO₃ + 6H₂O

89

[Cu(H₂O)₆]²⁺ + 4HCl →

What colour solution is formed?

[CuCl]²⁻ + 6H₂O

Yellow Soln

90

[Fe(H₂O)₆]²⁺ + 2OH⁻ →

[Fe(H₂O)₄(OH)₂] + 2H₂O

91

[Fe(H₂O)₆]²⁺ + 2NH₃ →

[Fe(H₂O)₄(OH)₂] + 2NH₄⁺

92

[Fe(H₂O)₆]²⁺ + CO₃²⁻ →

FeCO₃ + 6H₂O

93

[Fe(H₂O)₆]³⁺ +3OH⁻ →

[Fe(H₂O)₃(OH)₃] + 3H₂O

94

[Fe(H₂O)₆]³⁺ + 3NH₃ →

[Fe(H₂O)₃(OH)₃] + 3NH₄⁺

95

2[Fe(H₂O)₆]³⁺ + 3CO₃²⁻ →

2[Fe(H₂O)₃(OH)₃] + 3CO₂ + 3H₂O

96

[Fe(H₂O)₆]³⁺+ 4Cl⁻ →

What colour solution is formed?

[FeCl]⁻ + 6H₂O

Yellow Soln

97

[Al(H₂O)₆]³⁺ + 3OH⁻ →

[Al(H₂O)₃(OH)₃] +3H₂O

98

[Al(H₂O)₆]³⁺ + 3NH₃ →

[Al(H₂O)₃(OH)₃] + 3NH₄⁺

99

[Al(H₂O)₆]³⁺ + 4OH⁻ →

[Al(H₂O)₂(OH)₄]⁻ + 4H₂O

100

2[Al(H₂O)₆]³⁺ + 3CO₃²⁻ →

2[Al(H₂O)₃(OH)₃] +3CO₂ + 3H₂O