Flashcards in INRS 7311 : An Introduction to Defintions , Paradigms and Theories in Research Theme 2 : Research Paradigms Deck (8):
Define a paradigm in your own words 3 marks
Best and most simply described as a cluster or set of beliefs . . Dictates how any particular research is done .
Explain a paradigm shift in your own words . 4 marks .
*Scientists over time develop a set way of carrying out research analysis etc.
*Sooner or later , a situation arises where those set ways are challenged , thus requiring a shift .
*A paradigm shift is then defined as a change in set ways of thinking or operating , to adapt properly to these aforementioned new situations .
Explain ways of generating knowledge 9 marks .
*Empirical-analytical : A technical science .Deals with events that can be observed and scientifically explained . Linked to positivism and quantitative research . Aims to find causal relationships
*Historical-hermeneutic : Practical in nature , tries to understand a phenomenon in-depth . Linked to interpretivism and qualitative research . Aims to improve understanding .
*Critically orientated : A science looking to improve self-actualisation and autonomy . Blends quali and quantitative research . Linked to critical realism . Aims to free people from oppression
Distinguish between science and non-science 2 marks .
*Science = Rigourous investigations into the unknown . Great effort to verify results .
*Non-science = Common sense knowledge that is widely agreed upon .
Distinguish between the three dominant research traditions . 9 marks .
*Positivism = Broadly described as the approach of the natural sciences . Insists that only verifiable/objective facts should be considered . Aims to find causal relationships .
*Interpretivism = Developed as a reaction to positivisms shortcomings . Main idea of the paradigm is that people are different from objects and thus can't be studied in such a black and white manner . Aims to get a much deeper understanding .
*Critical realism = A mixed method approach aimed to correct positivism's narrow , non human approach and Interpretivism's broad contextual approach. Aims to free people from repression using research .
Describe Positivism in terms of its ontological , epistemiological , metatheoretic , methodological and axiological positions 10 marks
**Ontological = Anything verifiable via study
*Epistemomology = Studies , trials etc
*Metatheory = Can these theories link cause to effect ?
*Methodology = Quantitative
*Axiology= Facts , observations .
Describe Interpretivism in terms of its ontological , epistemiological , metatheoretic , methodological and axiological positions 10 marks
*Ontology = Anything felt very strongly about .
*Epistemology = Human mind , behaviour , interactions
*Metatheory = Is the theory unique ? Does it have varied applications each time
*Methodology = Qualitative
*Axiology = Understanding , Uniqueness and Subjectivity .