Flashcards in INRS 7311 Learning Unit 4 Sampling and Data Collection Theme 1 Population and Sampling Deck (23):

1

## Identify the population of a research study 3 marks

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*The whole group of people/entities from which the info is required or gathered

*This group is specified using research questions(outlines where data will come from )

*All members in a population must have one characteristic linking them to the research

2

## Explain the concept of population parameters 3 marks

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*Shared characteristics of the entire population chosen .

*Eg nature , size , etc

3

## Identify different units of analysis3 marks

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*Smallest possible units that can be investigated or researched .

*EG people , groups , organisations etc

4

## Discuss key considerations in identifying a population 6-8 marks

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*Determine the nature of the population by seeing whether research questions are best asked by turning to people , groups , organisation etc .

*Once you have the nature of the population , determine the common characteristics between the units of analysis

*Using this info the population can now be defined .

*Target and accessible population can now be distinguished between .

5

## Distinguish between target and accessible population 4 marks

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*Target audience = Any and everyone that falls into the characteristics outlined by the study .

*Accessible = Only population included in the study .

6

## Describe sampling and different sampling methods . 4 marks

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*Sampling is cutting the population who have the required characteristics down to a reasonable size .

*A sample is subset of the population that suitably represent the population

7

## Explain what is meant by a representative sample 3 marks

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*Shares the characteristics of the general population .

*Questions to this population should be the same standard/style as if the whole population was included .

8

## Explain a sampling error 4 marks

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*The extent to which we can generalize the findings to the rest of the population .

*Indication of how confident that a certain part of the population will provide similar result to the sample .

9

## Explain a sampling frame 3 marks

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*A full list of elements of the population .

*eg : phonebook , staff list , mailing list etc

10

## Discuss the aspects to consider when choosing a sampling method 5 marks

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*Sample is a subset of the population

*Sampling frame is a list of elements included in the population

*Final sample must have same relevant characteristics of the whole population to be a fair representation

11

## Distinguish between probability and non probability sampling methods . 10 marks

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*Probability sampling : has each unit in the population had the equal chance to be in the sample . This method is preferred in quantitative studies .Leads to a sample that : fits in with research parameters , is randomly drawn , requires little influence from the research , and leads to generalisable findings

*Non-probability sampling : Done when it is impossible to determine entire population or difficult to gain access to it . The chance to be in the sample isn't equal. Used in qualitative research . Sample drawn is : in line with research parameters , all aspects of population aren't available to access , when getting a representative sample isn't the goal of the study .

12

## List probability sampling methods

### Simple random sampling , systematic sampling stratified sampling , multi-stage cluster sampling

13

## Explain random sampling 3 marks

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* Each unit has an equal chance of being picked to be in the sample " drawn from a hat " .

*Helps remove researcher bias

14

## Explain systematic sampling . 4 marks

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*The sampling frame is used to list all the units of the population .

*An interval is set ( eg every 5 units) then that unit is put into the sample . eg for a population of 100 to get a sample size of 20 units , the interval might be 5 for instance .

15

## Explain Stratified sampling 4 marks

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*Split the population into strata ( groups that have similar characteristics within the same population)

*Simple random sampling or systematic is then used to draw sample

16

## Explain multi stage cluster sampling 3 marks

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*Done when the sample frame is too big and/or widespread

*Frame is split into cluster at least twice , from which a random draw is done for the final sample .

17

## List the non-probability sampling methods

### *Accidental , Convenience sampling , purposive , Quota , Snowball , Volunteer

18

## Explain accidental sampling 3 marks

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*Sample isn't taken from a frame , but chosen because they were in the right place at the right time .

*These results cannot be generalised , as the sample was chosen at random

19

## Explain convience sampling 4 marks

### *Sample is taken from units that are the most easily accessible . Different from accidental sampling in that the researcher is likely in regular contact with the units before the research begins , which is what makes them convienience in the first place .

20

## Explain purposive sampling 5 marks

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*Use of a set list of characteristics to choose our sample .

*Researcher then handpicks units that fit these characteristics from the population .

*Helpful as this ensures perfect sampling unit compliance .

21

## Explain Quota sampling 5 marks

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*Similar to purposive sampling .

*Differs in that the ratio of units picked for the final sample reflects the unit ratio as the population .

*eg if red sweets outnumber blue sweets two to one , the final sample of sweets will reflect this .

22

## Explain snowball sampling 3 marks

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*Often used in qualitiative research

*Based on referrals .

*Researcher gets in contact with one unit who fits characteristics . You then get them to put you in contact with other units they think fit your characteristics

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