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Flashcards in Insect Locomotion Deck (14)
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1

What are the two hypotheses in wing development called?

Paranotal hypothesis: wing is a new structure

Limb branch hypothesis: wing emerged from an existing structure

2

Give some advantages of wing development

Protection for legs
Covers for spiracles
Thermoregulation
Sexual display
Concealment
Predator avoidance

3

What were the three genes studied in wing development?

Wingless, vestigal and apterous

4

What do direct flight muscles do?

Power flight in big insects and wing attitude in smaller insects

5

What happens when the elevator muscle in the direct flight muscle contracts?

The wing is elevated (upstroke)

6

What happens when the depressor contracts in the direct flight muscle?

The wing is moved downwards

7

What do the indirect flight muscles do?

Provide the majority of propulsive force (lift) in most small holometabolous insects

8

What do the two antagonistic muscles in the indirect flight muscles do?

Dorso-ventral muscles flatten the thorax causing wing upstroke

Longitudinal muscles shorten the thorax causing wing downstroke

9

What is asynchronous activation?

More than one contraction per action potential/spike in a wing motor neuron

10

What is synchronous activation?

One wing beat per action potential (can’t exceed 100bps)

11

What nervous reflex usually initiates flight?

The tarsal flight reflex when the tarsi lose contact with the ground

12

What do the rheosensors and chordontal sensors do?

Rheosensors: maintain flight
Chordontal sensors: adjust flight

13

What are the two phases of walking?

A stance phase and a swing phase

14

What is the general step of an insect called?

Tripod gait