Flashcards in Integral Aspects of Nursing and Infection Prevention/Control Deck (47):
What do nurses base their practice off?
The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia
In demonstrating care, in what ways can we know the client and not just their condition?
Address them by their preferred name
Make sure we get permission to use their name
In demonstrating care, in what ways can we show our nursing presence?
'Being with' the patient - holding their hand
Friendly body language
Making the patient feel like their are being heard
Empowering the client
Comforting the client and family
What are some challenges to caring?
What is the first stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Neonatal (Birth to 28 days)
- Behaviour is reflexive
- Develops to more purposeful behaviour
What is the second stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Infancy (1 month to 1 year)
- Physical growth is rapid
What is the third stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Toddlerhood (1 year to 3 years)
- Motor development permits increase in physical autonomy
- Psychosocial skills increase
What is the fourth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Preschool (3 to 6 years)
- New experiences and social roles tried during play
- Physical growth slows
- World is expanding
What is the fifth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
School Age (6 to 12 years)
- Skills improve
- Includes the pre-adolescent period
- Peer group is increasingly influencing behaviour
- Physical, coginitive, social development increases
What is the sixth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Adolescence (12 to 20 years)
- Physical growth accelerates
- Values tested
- Stress increases
- Self-concept changes with biologic development
What is the seventh stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Young Adulthood (20 to 40 years)
- A personal lifestyle development
- Establishing a relationship with a significant other and a commitment to something
What is the eighth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
- Lifestyle changes due to other changes
- Example: children leave home, occupational goals change, look toward retirement
What is the ninth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Older Adulthood (65 to 74 years)
- Adaptation to retirement and changing physical abilities often necessary
- Chronic illness may develop
- Unable to do some things anymore
What is the tenth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Old Age (75 to 84 years)
- Adaptation to decline in speed of movement and reaction time
- Increasing dependence on others may be necessary
What is the last stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?
Old Old Age (85 years+)
Increasing physical problems may develop
When are kilojoule requirements greatest?
What are the physiological changes with age?
Neuromuscular - changes in speed and power of skeletal muscles
What are the psychosocial changes with age?
- Economic change
- Grand parenting
- Maintaining independence and self-esteem
What are the cognitive changes with age?
- Memory can be effected
- Learning becomes more difficult so keep the mind stimulated
What are some disorders that occur with age?
- Chronic disabling illnesses include:
Hearing and visual alterations
A dynamic concept which identifies systems of rules, beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviours, shared by a group taught across generations, relatively stable but capable of change across time
Refers to belonging to a certain race of people. Usually biologically determined
Belief in the superiority of one's own social group or society and a corresponding dislike or misunderstanding of other social groups
What does better care lead to?
Better health outcomes
Microorganisms normally present
Can be harmful or beneficial
Microbes present but not causing disease
Produce toxins that damage healthy tissue
Microbes invade and proliferate
In one area
Systemic inflammatory response to infection
What are some signs of infection?
Microorganisms which cause diseases only in susceptible people
The degree to which a microbe causes disease
Signs of infection
Define Antibiotic Resistance
Not responsive to antibiotics
Sudden onset, short duration
Occurs slowly, lasts a long time
What are some factors that increase susceptibility to infection?
- Being in a healthcare facility
What are the standard precautions?
Hand Hygiene before and after every patient contact
Clean and reprocess shared patient equipment
Follow respiritory hygiene and cough etiquette
Use and dispose of sharps safely
Use aseptic technique
Perform routine environmental cleaning
Handle and dispose of waste and used linen safely
What is used and how long for in a social/routine hand hygiene?
Ordinary soap for 15 seconds
How long is alcohol based rub used for?
15 to 20 seconds
What is used and for how long in clinical hand hygiene?
Antimicrobial Liquid Soap
What is used and for how long in surgical hand hygiene?
Antimicrobial Scrub Solution
3 - 6 minutes
What are the five moments of hand hygiene?
1. Before touching a patient
2. Before a procedure
3. After a procedure or body fluid exposure risk
4. After touching a patient
5. After touching a patient's surroundings
What are some personal protective equipment?