Integral Aspects of Nursing and Infection Prevention/Control Flashcards Preview

Nursing Care 1 - Foundations > Integral Aspects of Nursing and Infection Prevention/Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integral Aspects of Nursing and Infection Prevention/Control Deck (47):
1

What do nurses base their practice off?

The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia

2

In demonstrating care, in what ways can we know the client and not just their condition?

Address them by their preferred name
Make sure we get permission to use their name

3

In demonstrating care, in what ways can we show our nursing presence?

'Being with' the patient - holding their hand
Eye contact
Friendly body language
Helpful tone
Making the patient feel like their are being heard
Empowering the client
Comforting the client and family

4

What are some challenges to caring?

- Resources
- Technology
- Consumerism
- Commodification

5

What is the first stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Neonatal (Birth to 28 days)
- Behaviour is reflexive
- Develops to more purposeful behaviour

6

What is the second stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Infancy (1 month to 1 year)
- Physical growth is rapid

7

What is the third stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Toddlerhood (1 year to 3 years)
- Motor development permits increase in physical autonomy
- Psychosocial skills increase

8

What is the fourth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Preschool (3 to 6 years)
- New experiences and social roles tried during play
- Physical growth slows
- World is expanding

9

What is the fifth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

School Age (6 to 12 years)
- Skills improve
- Includes the pre-adolescent period
- Peer group is increasingly influencing behaviour
- Physical, coginitive, social development increases

10

What is the sixth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Adolescence (12 to 20 years)
- Physical growth accelerates
- Values tested
- Stress increases
- Self-concept changes with biologic development

11

What is the seventh stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Young Adulthood (20 to 40 years)
- A personal lifestyle development
- Establishing a relationship with a significant other and a commitment to something

12

What is the eighth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
- Lifestyle changes due to other changes
- Example: children leave home, occupational goals change, look toward retirement

13

What is the ninth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Older Adulthood (65 to 74 years)
- Adaptation to retirement and changing physical abilities often necessary
- Chronic illness may develop
- Unable to do some things anymore

14

What is the tenth stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Old Age (75 to 84 years)
- Adaptation to decline in speed of movement and reaction time
- Increasing dependence on others may be necessary

15

What is the last stage of lifespan development and what characterises it?

Old Old Age (85 years+)
Increasing physical problems may develop

16

When are kilojoule requirements greatest?

- Infancy
- Adolescence
- Pregnancy
- Lactation

17

What are the physiological changes with age?

Integument
Neuromuscular - changes in speed and power of skeletal muscles
Sensory
Gastrointestinal
Urinary
Metabolism

18

What are the psychosocial changes with age?

- Retirement
- Economic change
- Grand parenting
- Relocation
- Maintaining independence and self-esteem

19

What are the cognitive changes with age?

- Memory can be effected
- Learning becomes more difficult so keep the mind stimulated

20

What are some disorders that occur with age?

- Injuries
- Chronic disabling illnesses include:
Arthritis
Osteoporosis
Stroke
Hearing and visual alterations
Heart disease
- Dementia

21

Define Culture

A dynamic concept which identifies systems of rules, beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviours, shared by a group taught across generations, relatively stable but capable of change across time

22

Define Ethnicity

Refers to belonging to a certain race of people. Usually biologically determined

23

Define Ethnocetricity

Belief in the superiority of one's own social group or society and a corresponding dislike or misunderstanding of other social groups

24

What does better care lead to?

Better health outcomes

25

Define Flora

Microorganisms normally present
Can be harmful or beneficial

26

Define Colonise

Microbes present but not causing disease

27

Define Pathogens

Produce toxins that damage healthy tissue

28

Define Infection

Microbes invade and proliferate

29

Define Localised

In one area

30

Define Sepsis

Systemic inflammatory response to infection

31

What are some signs of infection?

Inflammation
Redness
Swelling

32

Define Opportunistic

Microorganisms which cause diseases only in susceptible people

33

Define Virulence

The degree to which a microbe causes disease

34

Define Communincable

Easily transmitted

35

Define Symptomatic

Signs of infection

36

Define Antibiotic Resistance

Not responsive to antibiotics

37

Define Acute

Sudden onset, short duration

38

Define Chronic

Occurs slowly, lasts a long time

39

What are some factors that increase susceptibility to infection?

- Disease
- Age
- Medications
- Nutrition
- Hereditary
- Antibiotics
- Stressors
- Being in a healthcare facility

40

What are the standard precautions?

Hand Hygiene before and after every patient contact
Clean and reprocess shared patient equipment
Use PPE
Follow respiritory hygiene and cough etiquette
Use and dispose of sharps safely
Use aseptic technique
Perform routine environmental cleaning
Handle and dispose of waste and used linen safely

41

What is used and how long for in a social/routine hand hygiene?

Ordinary soap for 15 seconds

42

How long is alcohol based rub used for?

15 to 20 seconds

43

What is used and for how long in clinical hand hygiene?

Antimicrobial Liquid Soap
2 minutes

44

What is used and for how long in surgical hand hygiene?

Antimicrobial Scrub Solution
3 - 6 minutes

45

What are the five moments of hand hygiene?

1. Before touching a patient
2. Before a procedure
3. After a procedure or body fluid exposure risk
4. After touching a patient
5. After touching a patient's surroundings

46

What are some personal protective equipment?

Gloves
Aprons
Masks
Safety glasses

47

What are the different colours and their corresponding cleaning equipment in hospital settings?

Blue = general
Green = kitchen
Red = bathroom
Yellow = Infectious areas
White = thearte