What organ can carry out all metabolic reactions in major pathways?
As a junction point, what can Glucose-6-P be converted to? (3) As a junction point, what can pyruvate be converted to? (4) As a junction point, what can acetyl-CoA be converted to? (3) (Hint CO2 is one)
- Glycogen Pyruvate Ribose-5-P
- Acetyl-Co-A Lactate Alanine OAA
- CO2, Ketone bodies, Fatty Acids
What are the macromolecule units that feed into Acetyl CoA for Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats? What system does Acetyl CoA enter from there to create ATP and CO2?
Amino Acids, Monosacharides, Glycerol/FAs TCA Cycle
What is the preferred energy source of the following cel types? RBC, Brain, Adipose, Liver, Muscles
RBC: Glucose Brain: Glucose and Ketone bodies Adipose: Glucose, Fatty Acids Liver: Fatty Acids primarily depends on Muscles: Glucose, FAs, AAs
Name a few of the metabolic purposes of the Liver (this one not too important)
Processes incoming nutrients, responds to dietary conditions, maintains nutrient concentrations in blood, makes/secretes proteins, processes toxins and wastes
To what organ do AAs go after absorption and through what tube? What are some of the things the organ does with them? (3)
The liver through the hepatic portal vein Make proteins and other N molecules, gluconeogenesis, fuel
What does Adipose tissue synthesize and store? What does it release these as and in what system?
Synthesizes/Stores Triglycerides Releases FA's into the blood (go to muscle, heart, liver)
What energy reserves does the brain have? What does it depend on? What percent of the bodies O2 does it use? What energy source does it switch too after days of low glucose?
No energy reserves Glucose 20% Ketone bodies in TCA
How much glycogen storage does the heart have? What condition is tissue death from lack of O2 in the heart?
No glycogen stores Myocardial infarction
What percent of the bodys glycogen stores does skeletal muscle have? What is it missing to be able to export glucose?
75% Glucose 6 Phosphatase
In exercise, in what order do the following occur? Anaerobic Glycolysis Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP-PCr
Atp/PCr (fastest) ---> Anaerobic glycolysis ----> Oxidative System This is also the order of increasing total energy production
What is the Phosphagen system? Explain it a little
Regeneration of ATP by Phosphocreatine For stuff like sprinting, quickly uses its ATP stores, quickly replenished by phosphocreatine (PCr to ATP and Creatine)
What are the starting and ending carbon molecules in Anaerobic glycolysis? What is the effect on the muscles Is this sustainable? If not, what does it switch to?
Glucose/Glycogen to Lactate Provides energy but causes muscle fatigue Not sustainable, have to go to Ox-Phos
What is the Cori Cycle? What organs does it involve?
Regenerate glucose from lactate Muscle sends lactate to Liver to convert to glucose
In oxidative phosphorylation, How many ATP will NADH give you? FADH2?
What ratio is the Energy charge of the cell? What ratio is the reducing power of the cell? How do these ratios relate to each other?
Ratio of ATP to ADP NADH to NAD+ They are inverse
What type of molecule is Ghrelin, what organ secretes it, where does it act and what effect does it produce?
Peptide secreted by the stomach, acts in hypothalamus to stimulate appetite.
What are Satiety signals? Where are they released from/act on? What is the main one and what kind of molecule is it? What kind is its receptor and where is it located?
Signals of Feeling full/help digestion The gut-the brain Cholecystokinin (CCK) Peptide hormone G-Protein Coupled receptor, peripheral neurons
In terms of energy homeostasis levels over the course of hours or days, what are the reporting hormones and what do they report on?
Leptin: Status of triacylglycerol stores from adipocytes Insulin: Status of blood glucose from B cells of pancreas
In the fed state, what processes occur in the liver? (3)
Glycolysis Glycogen Synthesis Triacylglycerol synthesis
In the fasting state, what 4 processes occur in the liver? (4)
Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Beta Oxidation Ketone body formation
In the fed state, in what form do Carbs, Fat, and proteins cross the intestine?
Glucose, Chylomicrons, Amino Acids
In the fasting state, what are the relative amounts of glucose, insulin, and glucagon?
Glucose low, insulin low, glucagon high
In the starvation state, what special molecule is created by the liver and where does it go?
Ketone bodies, Brain
How does insulin affect the following processes/molecules? Glucose Glycogen Glycolysis FAs
Glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, increased glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis
How does Glucagon ffect the following processes/molecules? Glycogen Gluconeogeneis Fatty acids Ketones
Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Fatty acid mobilization (use) Ketogenesis
What is Epinephrine (fight or flight) effects on the following? Heart rate Bp Respiratory passage size Glycogen Glucose
Increased HR, Bp, respiratory passage size Gycogenolysis Glycolysis
What does AMPK stand for and what is it's role? When ATP is high, what is AMPK activity? When ATP is low, what is effect on AMPK and what will it do? What does AMPK do enzymatically? What is the physical relationship between ATP and AMP in relation to AMPK?