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HDM Midterm > Integument & Barriers To Infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integument & Barriers To Infection Deck (35):
1

List the three basic shapes of epithelial cells and describe their shape.

Squamous : squashed

Cuboidal : cube-shaped

Columnar : taller than it is wide

2

In regard to layering of epithelium, one layer is referred to as _________ epithelium and multilayered is referred to as ____________ epithelium.

Simple

Stratified

3

Two special categories of epithelium are...

Pseudostratified epithelium
&
Urothelium

4

The integument is the __________ organ in the body (________ of body weight)

Largest

15-20%

5

What functions does the integument provide?

Protection: physical, chemical & biological barrier
Sensation and excretion (sweat)
Thermoregulation
Synthesis of Vitamin D3
(Sexual signaling)

6

What are the differences in thick vs. thin skin?

Thick skin is only on palms and soles, has 5layers instead of 4, lacks hair and makes fingerprints (400-1400microM vs. 75-150microM)

7

The surfaces of palms and soles have ________ with intervening furrows.

Each ridge follows the outline of an underlying ___________ (where we see creases and wrinkles)

Epidermal ridges

Dermal ridge/papilla

8

The tight interface at the dermal-epidermal junction is due to __________

Hemidesmesomes

9

List the 5 layers of the epidermis from outer layer to the innermost layer.

C- stratum corneum
(L- stratum lucidum in thick only)
G - stratum granulosum
S - stratum spinosum
B - stratum basale

10

What specific cells is the epidermis composed of? List 4.

Keratinocytes (most common)
Melanocytes
Merely cells
Langerhans cells - immune specific

11

The mitotically active layer is the stratum _________.

Skin is replaced every _________ days.

Basale

15-30

12

Stratum basale consists of what type of cells?

a single layer of cuboidal/low columnar

13

Stratum basale sits on top of ___________ and these two are connected by a ________________

Connective tissue

Basement membrane

14

Stratum ________ is typically the thickest layer, and can thicken enough with pressure to form corns and calluses. It produces polyhedral keratinocytes and cytokeratin, which aggregates to from tonofilaments.

Spinosum

15

In the stratum ___________, cells become progressively more flattened and contain granules.

Granulosum

16

The two types of granules in the stratum granulosum are __________ and ___________. Describe each type.

Keratohyalin granules: basophilic non-membrane bound granules
Cystine and histamine rich protein
Assembles keratin into bundles

Lamellar granules:
Lipid rich
Barrier to foreign material & water
loss

Provide a waterproof barrier

17

Stratum ___________ is a translucent band of cells with no organelles or nuclei and has densely packed keratin filaments.

Why does it get rid of the nucleus?

Lucidum

The nucleus takes up space and energy and the cells are no longer dividing so it's not needed (same as RBCs)

18

Stratum __________ consists of multiple layers of cells filled with mature keratin that is continuously shed.

Corneum

Thick skin: 15-40 layers
Thin skin: 1-20 layers

19

Melanocytes are located in the stratum ________

Basale

20

Merkel cells are located in the stratum ________

Basale

21

Langerhans cells are located in the _________ layer, which is made up of the stratum _________ and stratum _________

Malpghian layer

Stratum basale + stratum spinosum

22

Keratinocytes make ________ & _________ granules, form ________ in stratum corners and house _______, the pigment protein.

Keratin & lamellelar

Squames

Melanin

23

Fully keratinized cells are called ________ and are found in the stratum ________

Squames

Stratum corneum

24

Melanocytes produce melanin and transfer it to keratinocytes. What is melanin and what does it do?

Melanin is a pigment protein that protects nuclei from UV radiation

25

What is converted into what in order to be polymerized into melanin?

Tyrosine is converted into DOPA (3,4-dihyroxyphenylaline) by tyrosinase enzyme (a UV sensitive enzyme)

26

Langerhans cells develop in the _______from a monocyte precursor and serve as ______________ that provide defense against ___________

Bone marrow

APCs(antigen-presenting cells)

Pathogens

27

Merkel cells are nonencapsulated _________ for _______ touch and texture, reside in the stratum _________and are more numerous in _______skin. They are associated with _________

Mechanoreceptor

"Light"

Basale

Thick

Nerve endings

28

The dermis is made up of ________ tissue, has two layers the ________ & __________ and contains skin appendages, vasculature and sensory nerve endings.

Connective

Papillary & reticular

29

Which of the dermal layers is more superficial, has loose connective tissue and contains Meissner corpuscles and dermal papilla used for sensation?

Papillary layer

30

What corpuscle is in the papillary layer?

Meissner

31

Which layer of the dermis is the deeper layer of dense, irregular connective tissue with elastic fibers (more fibers and less cells)?

Reticular

32

Between the dermal layers lies the __________, capillary branches that provide a nutrient source

In comparison the __________ is deeper with larger vasculature and lymphatics

Subpapillary plexus

Cutaneous plexus

33

The layer of the epithelium that consists of subcutaneous tissue (aka superficial fascia), loose CT that binds skins to underlying organs, adipocytes and an extensive vascular supply is the _________

Hypodermis

34

Free nerve endings are the simplest ___________, involve numerous _______ fibers, are positioned along the _______________ and relay modalities such as temperature, touch, itching and pain.

Sensory receptor

Afferent fibers

Dermal-epidermal junction

35

Meissner corpuscles have an _________ shape, encapsulate _________ to detect _______ touch or low frequency stimuli.

They are frequently located in _________ partially surrounded by epidermis.

They are numerous in ________, _________ & _________

Elliptical
Touch receptors
Light

Dermal papillae

Fingertips, palms and soles