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Flashcards in Integumental system Deck (78):
1

What germ layer is the epidermis derived from

Ectoderm

2

Role of the integumental system

Protection
Barrier
Sensation
Thermoregulation
Vit. D synthesis

3

What are the three layers of skin

Epidermis
Dermis
Hyperdermis/subcutaneous tissue

4

What is the top layer of the epidermis called

Stratum corneum

5

What is the bottom layer of of the epidermis called

Stratum basalis

6

What cells compose the stratum corneum

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes

7

What are keratinocytes

Dead cells found in the stratum corneum

8

What are melanocytes

Have pigment and protect DNA of keratinocytes

9

What cells compose the stratum basalis

Basal cells

10

What is the purpose of basal cells

Touch

11

Describe the epidermis

Composed of two layers
Aneural
Avascular
4-5 Layers of cells

12

Describe the dermis

Thicker than the other two layers
2 zones
Rich nerve and blood supply

13

What does the dermis contain

Nail roots
Blood vessels
Sweat glands
Hair follicles
Sebacious glands
Sensory nerve endings
Muscular tissue

14

What are the two zones of the dermis

Papillary
Reticular

15

Describe the papillary zone

Zone of the dermis
Loose connective tissue
Movement

16

Describe the reticular zone of the dermis

dense irregular connective tissue
dense concentration of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers that weave throughout it

Inner surface --> sensitive
Outer -> exposed to elements --> thicker

17

Describe the Hyperdermis

Loose connective tissue
Adipose tissue
Size = variable

18

What are the two types of skin

Thick skin
Thin skin

19

What is the difference b/w thick and thin skin

Thick skin = hairless, thick epidermis, oil glands
Thin skin = hairy

20

What is the rule of 9's

Fluid is proportional to surface area affected

21

What are the different types of sweat glands

Merocrine
Mammary
Aprocrine
Sudoriferous
Odouriferous
Ceruminous
Sebacious

22

Merocrine glands

No odour
Throughout the body
secrete their substances by exocytosis.

23

Aprocrine glands

Odour
Genital and armpits

24

Suforiferous

No odour

25

Ceruminous glands

Wax producing

26

Sabacious glands

secrete an oily/waxy matter, called sebum

27

Mucocutaneous junction

Junction between skin and mucous membrane

28

Describe Pilosebaceous units

hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and an arrector pili muscle

29

Arrector Pili muscle

Muscle that pushes hair through skin -> gives us goose bumps

30

What are the two main types of nerve fibres

Sensory and motor

31

What are the three types of senesory nerve fibres

Noiciceptors
Mechnoreceptors
Thermoreceptors

32

Noiciceptors

Pain

33

Mechanoreceptors

Touch and pressure

34

Thermoreceptors

Temperature

35

What are the different types of motor nerves

Sudomotor
Vasomotor
Pilomotor

36

Sudomotor nerve fibres

Nerve fibres that go to the sweat glands

37

Pilomotor nerve fibres

Go to the arrector pili muscle

38

Vasomotor nerve fibres

Go to the blood vessels

39

The motor nerve fibres are part of which nervous system?

Sympathetic Nervous system

40

Dermatome

Area of skin supplied by a specfic spinal cord segment

41

From what do dermatomes develop

Somites

42

How many segements of dermatome are there

33

43

Referred pain

Experience pain at a different site than it actually originates from
Due to visceral organs lacking a good nerve supply

44

What are blood vessels derived from

Mesoderm

45

Where is blood found in skin

Dermis and hyperdermis

46

What is an angiosome

Block of tissue supplied by a source artery and vein

47

What is the role of the lymphatic system

Take away pathogens

48

Lymphatomes

Areas of skin drained by a particular node

49

Watershed area

Lymphs from different areas that are mixed up

50

Where is the cervical lymph area

Under neck

51

Where is the axillary lymph centres

Chest

52

Where is the inguinal lymp centres

Pelvic area

53

What layers of skin is the lymphatic system found

Superficial dermal lymphatic plexus
Deep dermal plexus

54

Where is the superficial dermal lymphatic plexus found

Adjacent to the epidermis

55

Where is the deep dermal plexus found

Subcatenous tissue

56

What germ layer is the dermis derived from?

Mesoderm

57

What germ layer are Cutaneous nerves derived from

neural crest (ectoderm).

58

In the human embryo, limb buds for the upper limb appear during which week?

6th week

59

As the embryo grows, the upper limb bud takes with it fibres from which spinal nerves

C5 (pre-axial) to T1 (post-axial)

60

The growing lower limb takes as its nerve fibres those connected to which spinal cord segments

L1 (pre-axial) to S2 (post-axial).

61

In the early embryo, the longitudinal axis of the body is marked by the ?

notochord

62

What do somites give rise to

derma-myotomes

63

What are derma-myotomes?

precursor of dermis and muscles

64

What do derma-myotomes give rise to?

myotomes

65

neurovascular bundle

Nerves and arteries tend to enter a muscle together

66

motor point

The point where the nerve enters a muscle hilum

67

muscles causing movement at a proximal joint (e.g. shoulder) tend to be supplied by more superior/inferior spinal segment?

Superior

68

distal movements (e.g. fingers) are supplied by more superior/inferior spinal segments?

Inferior

69

The cardiovascular system develops from which germ layer

Mesoderm

70

What is vasculogenisis

Blood vessel formation within developing foetus

71

Angioblasts

vessel-forming cells that differentiate from other mesoderm.

72

What oganic matter does the dermis contain?

collagen (for support) and elastic fibres (for flexibility)

73

What is collagen and elastic fibres made of

fibroblasts

74

Being fair, tanned, brown or black is determined by

amount and distribution of melanin

75

Describe nails

nail plate is the harder external surface
nail bed lies under the nail plate
The lunule is the whiter crescent extending out from the cuticle

76

Angiocysts

clumps of angioblasts that have flattened into endothelial cells.

77

Angioblastic cords

tube-like arrangements formed by organising angiocysts.

78

Angioblastic plexuses

networks created by interlinking the Angioblastic cords