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Flashcards in Intellectual disability Deck (22):

What is the definition of intellectual disability?

Deficits in intellectual functions confirmed by clinical assessment and individualised standardised intelligence testing; deficits in adaptive functioning that result in failure to meet developmental and socio-cultural standards for personal dependence and social responsibility that without support, limits functioning in one or more ADLs; onset of intellectual and adaptive deficits during the developmental period.


True or false: the various levels of severity of intellectual disability are defined on the basis of adaptive function and IQ scores. 

False. It is defined on the basis of adaptive function and not IQ scores, because it is adaptive functioning that determines level of support required. IQ measures are also less valid in the lower end of the IQ range. 


What are the severity levels of intellectual disability?

  • Mild 
  • Moderate 
  • Severe 
  • Profound 


Levels of severity of intellectual disability are assessed against what four things?

  • Conceptual 
  • Social
  • Practical 
  • Age levels


Almost ____% of people with ID have severe communication limitations.



Approximately ____% of the population have ID.



PWID are highly likely to have severe limitations in all three core ADLs; name the ADLs.

  • Self-care 
  • Mobility
  • Communication


What are the two areas with the lowest levels of fully met need for assistance?

Cognition/emotion and communication.


What is the most common problem reported by PWID?

Speech problems.


True or false: there are limited to no specialist services for PWID.

True; the majority of PWID live at home with family or in the community with limited funding and supports.


What are some negative experiences faced by PWID?

  • Intrusion and lack of privacy
  • Lack of control
  • Processes of testing and focus on deficits
  • Being a 'captive of care'
  • Having to be 'grateul' and compliant
  • Risk of abuse
  • Not receiving any useful service


True or false: disability is a cause and consequence of social disadvantage.


List some risk factors for health issues associated with PWID.

  • Nutrition
  • Lack of exercise
  • Medication (polypharmacy)
  • Biology associated with syndrome
  • Devaluing/isolation/loneliness
  • Access problems


PWID have high morbidity rates. What is the average number of medical conditions per [PWID] person?

5.4 per person.


List some common comorbidities in PWID.

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD)
  • Dental health
  • Infectious diseases
  • Genetic diseases
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Constipation


List some health specific risk factors of comorbidities.

  • Pain
  • Epilepsy (unrecognised/poorly controlled)
  • Sensory impairment 
  • Electrolyte imbalance (mx/polydipsia)
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Malignancy
  • Mx SE and interactions


List some MH specific risk factors of comorbidities. 

  • Appearance and behaviour (dysmorphic features, abnormal movements, eye contact)
  • Rapport/ability to engage, relationship with carer
  • Speech (echolali, dysarthria, level of communication)
  • Mood, affect
  • Thoughts 
  • Perceptual abnormalities
  • Insight and judgement


List some biological specific risk factors of comorbidities.

  • Genetic syndromes/behavioural phenotypes
  • Structural abnormalities in the brain
  • Physical/sensory/communication impairments
  • Epilepsy
  • Mx
  • Other medical conditions


List some psychological specific risk factors of comorbidities.

  • Impaired memory/judgement/apathy
  • Lower thresholds for coping with stress
  • Poor self image
  • Immature psychological defences under stress
  • Inability to problem solve using abstract thinking
  • Learned dysfunctional or abnormal coping strategies
  • Lack of emotional support


List some social specific risk factors of comorbidities. 

  • Under- or over-stimulating environment
  • Conflicts with family/staff
  • Issues with lack of social supports
  • Difficulties in developing fulfilling relationships
  • Problems with finding employment
  • Physical or psychological abuse
  • Lack of appropriate exposure/patronisation by others
  • Lack of integration with society/stigmatisation/discrimination
  • Bereavement and other life events
  • Changes in immediate environment/family/arers
  • Carer stress


What is MH in the context of this topic?

A continuum from a state of optimum health to having a severe mental illness; it may change over time. 


List the key reasons why PWID are more likely to experience MH problems.

  • Nature of the ID
  • Brain trauma (often results in psychiatric problems)
  • Disability population is more likely to encounter traumatic life events 
  • Social restrictions and fewer opportunities for life experience compromises development of coping mechanisms