What is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide?
Herpes simplex encephalitis
Which subset of the population is herpes encephalitis most common in?
Most common in childhood – affecting previously healthy individuals on primary infection with HSV-1
What is interferon?
Transferrable factor produced when the cells are exposed to virus
What is the effect of interferon binding to interferon receptors on cells?
It binds to specific receptors and signals the de novo transcription of hundreds of interferon stimulated genes (ISG), these genes are what make you feel ill and carry out processes in the body to get rid of the virus.
What are the three functions of type I interferons?
Induce ISGs in infected and neighboring cells
Increase antigen presentation and chemokine prodcution in innate cells
Increase antibody production
Increase effector T cell response
What are the type I interferons?
IFN alpha and IFN beta
What is the first interferon to be produced in a viral infection?
Which cells produce IFN beta?
All cells produce IFN beta and all tissues have IFNAR receptors
What is IFN beta induction triggered by?
Name a cell type that is specialised for producing IFN alpha.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells
What do cells specialised for producing IFN alpha.express high levels of?
How many genes are there for IFN alpha and IFN beta?
Alpha – 13/14 isotypes Beta – ONE
Which IFN comes under type II interferon?
IFN-gamma - specialist immune signalling molecule
Which cell types produce IFN-gamma?
Produced by activated T cells and NK cells
Which receptor does IFN-gamma signal through?
Which IFN falls under type III IFN?
Which receptors do type III IFNs signal through?
IL-28 receptors IL-10 beta receptors
Where are type III IFN receptors mainly present?
Epithelial surfaces E.g. respiratory epithelium and gut
•Polymorphisms in IFN lambda associated with improved outcome from HCV and HBV both spontaneous clearance and response to antiviral therapy T/F
List the different types of PRRs
TLR,RLR and cGAS(DNA sensor)