Internal Computer Hardware ( 1 ) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Internal Computer Hardware ( 1 ) Deck (19):

What are the internal components?

• Processor
• Main Memory
• System Bus
• I/O controllers


What is the processor?

The processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer, consisting of a fetch, decode and execute cycle.


What is the purpose of the control unit?

Component of the computer's CPU that directs the operation of the computer, co-ordinates and controls all operation.


What are the three operations of the control unit?

• Fetch
• decode
• Execute


What is the stored program concept?

Machine code instructions stored in main memory are fetched and executed serially by a processor that performs arithmetic and logical operations.


What is a bus?

• A bus is a set of parallel wires connecting the components of the computer.
• Groups of parallel wires that connect the processor to various input and output controllers being used by the computer.


What is the purpose of the ALU?

The ALU is used to perform arithmetic, logic and shift operations on data.


What are some examples of logical operations?

Comparing one data item with another to determine whether the first data item is smaller than, equal to or greater than the second data item.


What is a register?

A discrete memory location within the CPU designed to hold temporary data and instructions, that operates at high speed.


What is a buffer?

When a register is being used to move data/instructions from one part of the system to another.


Where do arithmetic and logical operations take place?

Within registers, often the ALU.


What three busses connect the processor to main memory?

• Control Bus
• Address Bus
• Data Bus


What is the process of the CPU accessing a particular memory location?

• Sends address to memory on the address bus
• Data at this location is returned to the CPU on the data bus
• Control signals are sent along the control bus


What directions can data and control signals travel?



What direction do addresses travel?

One direction, along the address bus, the processor sends the address of an instruction to memory or an I/O controller.


What does it mean for a bus to be bi-directional?

• Signals can be carried in both directions


Why are control lines necessary?

• To ensure that access to and use of the data and address busses by the different components of the system does not lead to conflict.


What is the purpose of the control bus?

• Transmit command, timing and specific status information between system components.
• Used by the CPU to communicate with devices that are contained within the CPU


What are some control lines?

• Memory Write
• Memory Read
• Interrupt Request
• Bus Request
• Bus Grant
• Clock
• Reset