What are clinical presentations of large animals with chronic pain called?
What can cause colic?
Torsions - Obstruction (internal or external) - Rupture
What has occured in this image?
Intussusception - intestine has inverted inside itself so mucosa is touching mucosa
What has occured in this picture?
Pedunculated lipoma - obstructing the intestinal tract
What are the consequences of obstuction of upper intestinal tract?
Acute and severe - Fluid and gas above obstructin - Vomiting - Metabolic alkalosis - Dehydration - Reduced renal flow and uraemia
What are the consequences of obstruction of the lower intestinal tract?
Less acute - Pressure from fluid an gas build up lead to ulcration, infarction, haemorrhage and peritonitis - Eventually metabolic acidosis (dehydration and catabolism of fat & muscle)
What is normally involved in acute diarrhoea? Give examples
Infectious agents - Viruses (rotavirus, parvovirus) - Bacteria (campylobacter, salmonella, clostridium) - Endoparasites (cyathostomes) - Protozoa (cryptosporidiosis, coccidiosis)
What are the 5 mechanisms of diarrhoea pathogenesis?
Altered epithelial cell transport - Altered structure/permability - Osmotic effects - Altered motility - Damage to colonic mucosa
What is the difference between Rotavirus and Parvovirus infection?
Rotavirus causes damage to villi
Parvovirus infects crypts and causes mucosal collapse
What has occured in this pictue? What is a possible cause?
Haemorrhagic ulcer - Salmonellosis
What has occured in this photo?
Cyathostominosis infection (small strongyle) colonising the surface of the bowl
What are the concequences of acute diarrhoea?
Loss of water (dehydration, haemoconcentration, hypovolaemic shock) - Loss of ions (hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis)
What can cause chronic diarrhoea/weight loss?
IBD (chronic enterocolitis) - Lymphangiectasia - Endoparasitism - Neoplasia - Grass sickness
What causes a) Maldigestion b) Malabsorption
a) Liver - decreased bile secretion or obstruction of biliary flow OR Pancreas - decreased enzymes (exocrine pancreatic insufficiency)
b) Intestine - decreased surface area for absorption (villous atrophy or resection of bowel segments)
What causes protein losing enteropathy?
Increased permability to plasma proteins which are lost to intestinal lumen - Chronic inflammation causing lymphatic blockage
What is the main protein lost in protein-losing enteropathy? What does this lead to?
Albumin - Hypoalbuminaemia - decreased osmotic pressure = oedema and ascites
What is IBD?
Inflammatory bowel disease - syndrome associated with persistent bowel inflammation
What are the subdivisions of IBD?
Eosinophilic enteritis - Lymphoplasmacytic enteritis
Here are two images of IBD. Which is which subdivision?
Lymphoplasmacytic - left
Eosinophilic - right
What three problems can endoparasitism cause? Give an example in each case
Malabsorption (cyasthostominosis) - Obstruction (ascariasis) - Vascular compromise (large strongyle disease)
What is the acute presentation of grass sickness?
Nasogastric reflux - Oesophageal ulceration - Gastric dilation and rupture