Intestinal Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intestinal Pathology Deck (21):
1

What are clinical presentations of large animals with chronic pain called?

Colic

2

What can cause colic?

Torsions - Obstruction (internal or external) - Rupture

3

What has occured in this image?

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Intussusception - intestine has inverted inside itself so mucosa is touching mucosa

4

What has occured in this picture?

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Pedunculated lipoma - obstructing the intestinal tract

5

What are the consequences of obstuction of upper intestinal tract?

Acute and severe - Fluid and gas above obstructin - Vomiting - Metabolic alkalosis - Dehydration - Reduced renal flow and uraemia

6

What are the consequences of obstruction of the lower intestinal tract?

Less acute - Pressure from fluid an gas build up lead to ulcration, infarction, haemorrhage and peritonitis - Eventually metabolic acidosis (dehydration and catabolism of fat & muscle)

7

What is normally involved in acute diarrhoea? Give examples

Infectious agents - Viruses (rotavirus, parvovirus) - Bacteria (campylobacter, salmonella, clostridium) - Endoparasites (cyathostomes) - Protozoa (cryptosporidiosis, coccidiosis)

8

What are the 5 mechanisms of diarrhoea pathogenesis?

Altered epithelial cell transport - Altered structure/permability - Osmotic effects - Altered motility - Damage to colonic mucosa

9

What is the difference between Rotavirus and Parvovirus infection?

Rotavirus causes damage to villi

Parvovirus infects crypts and causes mucosal collapse

10

What has occured in this pictue? What is a possible cause?

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Haemorrhagic ulcer - Salmonellosis

11

What has occured in this photo?

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Cyathostominosis infection (small strongyle) colonising the surface of the bowl

12

What are the concequences of acute diarrhoea?

Loss of water (dehydration, haemoconcentration, hypovolaemic shock) - Loss of ions (hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis)

13

What can cause chronic diarrhoea/weight loss?

IBD (chronic enterocolitis) - Lymphangiectasia - Endoparasitism - Neoplasia - Grass sickness

14

What causes a) Maldigestion b) Malabsorption

a) Liver - decreased bile secretion or obstruction of biliary flow OR Pancreas - decreased enzymes (exocrine pancreatic insufficiency)

b) Intestine - decreased surface area for absorption (villous atrophy or resection of bowel segments)

15

What causes protein losing enteropathy?

Increased permability to plasma proteins which are lost to intestinal lumen - Chronic inflammation causing lymphatic blockage

16

What is the main protein lost in protein-losing enteropathy? What does this lead to?

Albumin - Hypoalbuminaemia - decreased osmotic pressure = oedema and ascites

17

What is IBD?

Inflammatory bowel disease - syndrome associated with persistent bowel inflammation

18

What are the subdivisions of IBD?

Eosinophilic enteritis - Lymphoplasmacytic enteritis

19

Here are two images of IBD. Which is which subdivision?

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Lymphoplasmacytic - left

Eosinophilic - right

20

What three problems can endoparasitism cause? Give an example in each case

Malabsorption (cyasthostominosis) - Obstruction (ascariasis) - Vascular compromise (large strongyle disease)

21

What is the acute presentation of grass sickness?

Nasogastric reflux - Oesophageal ulceration - Gastric dilation and rupture