Intracerebral Hemorrhage Flashcards Preview

724: Medical Lectures > Intracerebral Hemorrhage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Deck (22)
1

When do intracerebral hemorrhages tend to occur?

suddenly, without warning, during activity

2

What are intracerebral hemorrhages associated with?

advanced age and male sex

3

What are spontaneous, nontraumatic, intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with no angiographic evidence of an associated vascular anomaly due to?

hypertension

4

What is the pathologic basis for hemorrhage?

the presence of microaneurysms that develop on perforating vessels in hypertensive patients

5

Where do hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages typically occur?

in the basal ganglia

6

What results when the hemorrhage extends into the subarachnoid space?

signs of meningeal irritation emerge

7

What s a frequent cause of hemorrhage in the elderly?

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

8

Hemorrhage caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy has a _____ prognosis than hypertensive hemorrhage

better

9

List 5 other causes of nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage

- hematologic and bleeding disorders (leukemia, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, or disseminated intravascular coagulation)
- anticoagulant therapy
- liver disease
- high alcohol intake
- primary or secondary brain tumors

10

Are women or men more prone to intracerebral hemorrhages

men

11

Where does bleeding occur primarily?

in the subarachnoid space when it occurs in from an intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation

12

What are the 3 general signs and symptoms of intracerebral hemorrhages?

- Lost or impaired consciousness
- Vomiting
- Headache

13

What typically occurs with hypertensive hemorrhage?

a rapidly evolving neurologic deficit with hemiplegia or hemiparesis

14

What do cerebellar hemorrhages present as?

- sudden onset of nausea and vomiting
- dysequilibrium
- headache
- loss of consciousness that may terminate fatally within 48 hours

15

What imaging modality is the best at detecting intracranial hemorrhage less than 48 hours old?

CT without contrast

16

What image finding is a predictor of poor outcome?

hematoma expansion

17

What lab values may reveal a predisposing cause for hemorrhage?

- complete blood count
- platelet count
- bleeding time
- prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times
- liver and kidney function tests

18

What special test is contraindicated and why?

Lumbar puncture because it may precipitate a herniation syndrome in patients with a large hematoma

19

Treatment for intracranial hemorrhage is typically _____ and ______.

conservative and supportive

20

Describe treatment options

- ventilatory support
- blood pressure regulation
- seizure prophylaxis
- control of fever
- osmotherapy
- nutritional supplementation

21

What may be required in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus?

ventricular drainage

22

What is the treatment protocol for cerebellar hemorrhages?

prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma