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Flashcards in intro Deck (59):
1

Nervous system messages facts (4)

- travel at high speeds - defined pathways - activate a limited number of target cells. - rapid response, short duration

2

Endocrine messages facts (4)

- travel more slowly - bloodstream - act on specific target cells throughout the body - slow response, longer duration

3

ADH and oxytocin

created in the hypothalamus and travel down axons to the post. pit where they are stored and released

4

Oxytocin is stimulated by....

Suckling (release of milk by the breast) Vaginal distention, cervical dilation in labor

5

2 actions of oxytocin?

Milk ejection from breasts (facilitates nursing of infants) Stimulates uterine contraction in labor

6

ADH is stimulated by.....

Increased plasma osmolality (most sens) Hypovolemia, hypotension Other nonosmotic stimuli (SIADH)

7

What are the 2 actions of ADH?

Conserves water (causes water retention by kidney) Raises blood pressure (constricts arterioles)

8

Normal plasma Osm range?

280-290

9

3 actions of growth hormone?

1. increases muscle mass 2. promotes bone growth 3. Opposes the action of insulin and raises BG (diabetogenic/insulin resistance

10

what are the 4 insulin opposing hormones?

1. GH 2. glucagon 3. Epi 4. cortisol

11

Growth hormone is stimulated by?

- Low blood glucose - Fasting, starvation - Hormones of puberty - Exercise - Stress

12

Growth hormone is inhibited by?

- Hyperglycemia - Obesity - Somatostatin and somatomedins - Senescence

13

Thyroid hormones circulate mostly bound to....

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)*** T4-binding prealbumin (transthyretin) Albumin

14

Which fraction of thyroid is the active portion?

THE FREE FRACTIONS OF CIRCULATING T4 AND T3

15

Alterations of binding protein levels affect.....

TOTAL T4 and T3, but NOT FREE T4 and T3

16

growth actions of TSH?

increases growth and bone maturation

17

CNA actions of TSH?

maturatin of CNS

18

Cardiovascular actions of TSH?

increase cardiac output

19

Metabolism actions of TSH? (5)

1. increase glucose absoprtion 2. increase glycogenolysis 3. increase gluconeogenesis 4. increase lipolysis 5. increase protein synthesis and degredation

20

BMR actions of TSH? (4)

1. increase Na/K ATPase 2. increase O2 consumption 3. increase heat production 4. increase BMR

21

Prolactin is stimulated by..... (4)

1. Pregnancy (estrogen) 2. Breast feeding 3. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) 4. Dopamine antagonists

22

Prolactin is inhibited by

1. Dopamine (PIF) 2. Dopamine agonists(bromocriptine, cabergoline) 3. Somatostatin 4. Prolactin

23

What are the 3 actions of prolactin?

1. puberty-- breast development 2. pregnancy-- mammary gland growth and developement 3. Lacation-- milk production and secretion; inhibits ovulation

24

ACTH and mineralcorticoid secretion?

exerts a MINOR tonic stimulatory effect (aldosterone release)

25

G/c effects on catabolic and diabetogenic effects...

- increase Proteolysis (catabolic), gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis

26

G/c effects on anti-inflammatory and immunosuppresive

- inhibit meadiators of inflammation (leukotrienes, interlukins, histamine) - inhibit mediators of immune system

27

g/c effects on adipose tissue

- cuase redistribution to the truncal area, moon face, buffalo hump

28

g/c effects on BP

- enhance vascular responsiveness to catecholamines to help maintain a normal BP

29

g/c effects on bone

- inhibit bone formation (decrease syn of bone matrix, osteoblast, Ca abs)

30

g/c effects on blood

- stimulation of neutrophil release

31

g/c effects on renal-electrolytes

- increased GFR due to afferent arteriole dilation - mild mineralcorticoid effect (Na retention, edema, low K, metabolic alkalosis

32

g/c effects on gastric secretions

increased HCl and pepsin

33

g/c effects on brain function

- decreased REM sleep - increased wake time - may cause euphoria, irritbaility, mania, depression

34

High K relationship with Aldo?

-will increase Aldo secretion - Increase renal K secretion and excretion - causes a decrease in plasma K level

35

Low K relationship with aldo?

- will decrease aldo secretion - decrease renal K secretion and excretion - causes an increase in plasma K level

36

8 effects of adrenal androgens in males

- Increased muscle mass - Growth spurt and epiphyseal plate closure - Growth of penis and seminal vesicles - Male hair pattern - Deepening of voice - Spermatogenesis - Libido - in utero, differntiates male genital tract

37

2 effects of adrenal androgens in females

- Stimulate growth of pubic and axillary hair - Libido

38

The medulla is responsible for which 2? and percents?

Epi (80) and Norepi (20)

39

What portion of Ca is the bio active?

ionized/ free Ca

40

What are the actions of PTH in the bone?

- bone resoprtion (major) - Bone formation (transient)

41

What are the actions of PTH in Kidney?

- decreased calcium excretion - increased phos secretion - increased calcitrol

42

What are the actions of PTH in the GI tract?

-increased abs. of Ca and phos

43

what is the net effect of PTH

-increase serum Ca - decrease phos

44

PTh secretion is stimulated by....

- Low serum calcium - High serum phosphorus

45

PTH is inhibited by....

- High serum calcium - 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol

46

What are the actions of Vit D in the GI tract?

- increase Ca and phos abs

47

What are the actions of Vit D in bone?

- works with PTH to increase bone resorption - promotes osteoid mineralization in growing children

48

What are the effects of Vit D in the kidney?

- decrease Ca and Phos excretion

49

What are the effects of Vit D in the parathyroid?

- decrease PTH production

50

What is the net effect of Vit D?

increase Ca and Phos

51

Insulin is stimulated by?

- Hyperglycemia - Glucagon - Potassium - Incretins (GLP-1; GIP)

52

Insulin is inhibited by?

- Hypoglycemia - Fasting - Exercise - Somatostatin

53

Glucagon secretion is increased by....

fasting and by low blood glucose

54

Glucagon secretion is inhibited by....

- insulin - somatostatin - elevated fatty acid and ketoacid concentrations

55

_____ are Peptides secreted by small intestine in response to food

Incretins

56

2 examples of incretins?

GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide)

57

4 things that incretins do?

Increase insulin secretion Decrease glucagon secretion Delay gastric emptying (slows rise of blood glucose) Decrease food intake causing weight loss

58

actions of aldosterone at the distal tubule?

1. retention of Na 2. excretion of K 3. excretion of H

59

What are 3 locations that release somatostatin and its roles?

1. pancreas-- after meals (inhibits insulin AND glucagon) 2. hypothalamus-- (inhibits release of growth hormone) 3. intestine-- (inhibits GI hormones and intestinal mobility)