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Flashcards in Intro Material Deck (47):
1

How do bacteria reproduce?

Binary fission

2

What kind of cells are bacteria?

Prokaryotes (no nucleus)

3

What is a unique component of a bacterial cell wall?

Peptidoglycan

4

What is a unique component of Gram Positive bacteria?

Lipotichoic acid

5

What id lipotichoic acid for?

Antigenicity

6

What is a unique component of Gram Negative bacteria?

LPS in outer membrane

7

What are LPS for?

Virulence factor

8

What is a unique component of mycobacteria?

Mycolic acid

9

What is mycolic acid for?

Virulence factor

10

What endotoxin of LPS can activate the immune system and exert harmful effects on the host?

Lipid A component

11

What color do Gram-Negative bacteria stain?

Pink

12

What color do Gram-Positive bacteria stain?

Purple/blue

13

Which bacteria have thick peptidoglycan layers?

Gram-Positive bacteria

14

Which bacteria have thin peptidoglycan layers?

Gram-Negative bacteria

15

What does acid fast staining detect?

Mycolic acid

16

What kind of cell wall does acid fast positive bacteria have?

Gram-Positive (thick peptidoglycan)

17

What color do acid fast positive organisms stain?

Pink

18

What color do acid fast negative organisms stain?

Blue

19

Located on the bacterial surface and used in locomotion/motility

Flagella

20

Small thread-like structures on bacterial surface that facilitate adherence to the host tissue through specific receptors

Pili/fimbriae

21

Outer coating of the bacteria that helps the bacteria evade phagocytosis

Capsule

22

Highly resistant dormant form of some gram-positive bacteria produced when adverse conditions exist

Endospores

23

How can bacterial growth be measured?

Colony counting, turbidimetry, flow cytometry

24

Oxygen is required for growth

Aerobic

25

Oxygen is not required nor utilized for growth

Anaerobic

26

Oxygen not required but can be utilized for growth

Facultative anaerobic

27

Produced by bacteria and released outside the cell to exert action on specific target cells

Exotoxins

28

When are exotoxins released?

When bacteria are dead or killed

29

Produced by pathogenic microbes that are MHC-indiscriminate and result in massive cytokine release

Superantigens

30

Microbes come together in masses, cling to surfaces, and produce extracellular substances and take in nutrients

Biofilm

31

Bacteria are relatively innocuous as they quietly grow in number, and become overwhelmingly pathogenic when they reach a certain number

Quorom sensing

32

Smaller circular DNA present in bacteria

Plasmids

33

Virus particles that attack bacteria

Bacteriophages

34

How are virulence factors transferred between bacteria?

Conjugation, transformation, transduction

35

How are bacteria classified?

Evaluation of both genotypic and phenotypic properties

36

What are fungi?

Eukaryotic heterotrophs with a plant-like cell wall

37

All of the microbial cells present in a body

Microbiome

38

A microbe that can cause disease

Pathogen

39

Mechanisms by which the pathogen causes disease

Pathogenesis

40

Degree of pathogenicity, including severity

Virulence

41

Properties or traits found in isolates that cause disease

Virulence factors

42

What predisposes and animal to an infectious disease

Predisposition

43

The majority of bacteria are _____ pathogens

Extracellular

44

Host's response to presence of microorganisms or its products

Inflammation

45

Which bacteria does not have a cell wall?

Mollicutes (mycoplasma)

46

Which bacteria has 2 circular chromosomes?

Leptospira

47

Which bacteria had linear chromosomes?

Borrelia burgdorferi