Intro Notes (measurement, descriptive statistics, normal distribution) Flashcards Preview

SPED 416 Individualized Assessment > Intro Notes (measurement, descriptive statistics, normal distribution) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro Notes (measurement, descriptive statistics, normal distribution) Deck (57):
1

What are the three central tendency statistics?

Mean, median and mode

2

What are the 4 types of dispersion?

1. Range,
2. Interquartile range,
3. variance, and
4. Standard Deviation

3

The difference between the highest and lowest observation or measured value of a construct is which type of dispersion?

Range

4

The difference between the largest and smallest observation without correcting for rounding error in measurements is which type of Range?

Exclusive Range

5

The difference between the largest and smallest observation but correcting for rounding error in measurements is which type of Range?

Inclusive Range

6

value at 3rd quartile – value at 1st quartile or value at 75th percentile – value at 25th percentile is which type of dispersion?

Interquartile Range

7

Interquartilerange/2 • (Q3–Q1)/2 is which type of interquartile range?

Semi-Interquartile range

8

What is the best use for the semi-interquartile range?

canbeusedasaroughtestfor symmetry of a distribution

9

What are the two types of deviations within an interquartile range?

1. Quartile deviation
2. Coefficient of quartile deviation

10

Which of the two types of deviations within an interquartile range is the averageofthe range from Q1 to Q2 and of the range from Q2 to Q3?
Visual: ((Q2-Q1) + (Q3-Q2))/2

Quartile Deviation

11

Which of the two types of deviations within an interquartile range is a measure of interquartile dispersion that is relative to the size and distribution of the observations and of the measurements of a construct?
Visual: (Q3 – Q1)/(Q3 + Q1)

Coefficient of Quartile Variation

12

What is the most common measure of dispersion/variability/ spread?

Standard Deviation

13

Which type of deviation is the square of the deviations from the mean?

Standard Deviation

14

What does it mean to deviate?

To differ from typical or average

15

Statistically typical or normal takes the form of a measure of......

Central Tendencies (Mean, median, mode)

16

Statistically: If a person scores above the mean, the deviation yields a_______ number

positive

17

Statistically: If a person scores below the mean, the deviation yields a ___________ number

negative

18

Measure of typicality; typical score in a distribution

Central Tendency

19

What is Spread of the distribution

Dispersion

20

The most frequently occurring observation or measured value for a construct or phenomenon

Mode

21

Middleobservationor measured value of a construct in a distribution; 50th percentile

Median

22

Average score; typically the arithmetic average, but not always

Mean

23

When reporting measures of central tendency, a nominal scale of measurement will yield a _________ (Central Tendency).

Mode

24

When reporting measures of central tendency, an ordinal scale of measurement will yield a _________ and _______(Central Tendencies).

Mode and Median

25

When reporting measures of central tendency, an interval scale of measurement will yield a _______, ________ and _______(Central Tendencies).

Mode, Median, Mean*

26

When reporting measures of central tendency, a ratio scale of measurement will yield a _______, ________ and _______(Central Tendencies).

Mode, Median, Mean

27

When reporting measures of dispersion, a interval scale of measurement will yield aprimary concern of ________ (Dispersion type)

Standard deviation

28

When reporting measures of dispersion, a interval scale of measurement will yield aprimary concern of ________ (Dispersion type)

Standard deviation

29

When reporting measures of dispersion, an ordinal scale of measurement will yield a primary concern of ________ (Dispersion type)

Range

30

When reporting measures of dispersion, a nominal scale of measurement will yield ____ _______ (Dispersion types)

Pie Chart Dispersion types

31

Think about the conceptual data of standard deviation, What happens if the sample size (the number of scores) increases?

The standard deviation gets smaller!

32

Think about the conceptual data of standard deviation, What happens if the sample size (the number of scores) decreases?

The standard deviation gets bigger.

33

Assigning values to according to a system (often in the form of an operation definition) that represents a model (often in the form of a theoretical or constitutive definition)

Measurement

34

Process of assigning values to indicants associated with a construct

Measurement

35

Event, occurrence, situation, or behavior that can be observed.

Phenomenon

36

An unobservable entity that functions as a label or as a causal entity for a constellation of behaviors or of phenomena

Construct

37

Definition describes how a construct is being measured

Measurement

38

Definition describes how a construct or a variable is being manipulated

Experimental

39

Descriptionofhowaconstructisinstantiatedina theoretical model

Theoretical definition

40

What is the relation among the mean, median and mode in a normal distribution.

They are all central tendencies to which the rest of the distribution is asymmetrical.

41

T or F, The number of scores decreases as standard deviations from the mean increase.

True

42

T or F The normal distribution is asymmetric.

True

43

The number of scores between +/- one standard deviation is ___________

68%

44

The number of scores between +/- two standard deviations is __________

95%

45

From where (not whom) does the normal distribution come?_________________________________

Mathematics

46

Placement of students in Special Education is a predictor of:
1. Graduation
2. Criminality
3. Employment
4. Divorced parents

1. Less likely to Graduate
2. More likely Criminality
3. low Employment
4. more likely divorced parents

47

For the Wood Cock Johnson, the _______is the number of questions correct to be able to interpret the results; lowest five.

Basal

48

For the Wood Cock Johnson, the _______is the number of questions wrong to be able to interpret the results; highest five missed.

Ceiling

49

For the Wood Cock Johnson, Read the _____(color), Look at the _________(color)

Read the Blue (color), Look at the Lavendar (color)

50

Four types of Normal probability distribution...

1. Normal curve
2. •Normal distribution
3. •Bell curve
4. •Gaussian distribution

51

What are predictable patterns based on standard deviation units?

Normal Distribution

52

Normal Distribution: Normal scores between 0 and -1...?

34%

53

Normal Distribution: Normal scores between -1 and -2...?

13.5%

54

Normal Distribution: Normal scores between -2 and -3...?

2.5%

55

Normal Distribution: Normal scores between 0 and 1...?

34%

56

Normal Distribution: Normal scores between 1 and 2...?

13.5%

57

Normal Distribution: Normal scores between 2 and 3...?

2.5%