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Flashcards in Intro To A&P Deck (51):
0

Black box theory

When you know what something does but not how

1

Homeostasis

A relatively constant internal environment

2

Life functions require energy. How do humans obtain energy(2)

1. Absorption of oxygen
2. Absorption of various chemicals from environment

3

4 functions all living things have in common

1. Responsiveness- recognizes changes in its environments
2. Adaptability- changes organisms behaviour or structures
3. Growth- indicates organism is successful . Reproduction
4. Movement

4

Larger organisms also do 4 other characteristics

1. Respiration- absorption of oxygen
2. Circulation- movement of fluid within organism
3. Digestion- chemical breakdown of materials
4. Excretion- elimination of chemical waste

5

Define anatomy

Means a "cutting open"
Study of physical relationship among body parts

6

Difference of microscopic and gross anatomy

Gross is large structures ex organ
Microscopic cannot be seen without aid ex cells

7

Physiology

Study of function

8

Structure and function are __________

Interrelated

9

Name the 6 levels of organization in the body from smallest to largest

1. Chemical
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ system
6. Organism

10

Anatomy of red blood cell

Flattened disc to slip through capillaries

11

Anatomy of fat cells

Spherical for fat storage

12

Anatomy of sperm cell

Flagella for swimming

13

Anatomy of nerve cell

Branching covering huge surfaces

14

What is the cell theory

1. Structural building blocks of all life
2. Cells are produced from preexisting cells
3. Smallest Units that perform vital functions

15

Define epithelial tissue

Covers all exposed body surfaces. Produces glandular secretions

16

Define matrix

Extra cellular fluid composed of ground substance and protein fibres

17

What does connective tissue do

Structural support and stores energy

18

Functions of muscle tissue

Tissue support
Blood flow
Stabilizes body temperature

19

What does neural tissue do

Carry information to structures inside body

20

What's a neuroglia

Isolates and supports neurons

21

What is the CNS and PNS

CNS is the brain and spinal cord
PNS is the nerves connecting the CNS to organs

22

List the 11 organ systems

1. Integumentary
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
5. Endocrine
6. Lymphatic
7. Respiratory
8. Digestive
9. Urinary
10. Reproductive
11. Cardiovascular

23

What does the integumentary system include and what does it do

Includes skin hair and nails. Protects from environmental hazards and controls body temperature

24

Skeletal system does:

1. Stores minerals
2. Forms blood cells
3. Protects tissues
4. Support

25

Define muscular system

Movement and support

26

What does nervous system do

Controls all organ activities

27

Endocrine system does:

Secretes hormones and directs long term change

28

The function of the cardiovascular system is:

Carry materials to all parts of the body

29

What does the lymphatic system do

Defends body against infection and disease

30

What does the respiratory system do

Produces sounds and gas exchange in lungs

31

Digestive system does:

Processes food and absorbs nutrients

32

Urinary system :

Eliminates excess water

33

Define reproductive system:

Provides continuity of life
Produces sex cells and hormones

34

Physiological adjustment to preserve homeostasis

Homeostatic regulation

35

Sensitive to environmental change

Receptor

36

Process information from the receptor and sends out command

Control centre

37

Responds to commands opposing stimulus

Effector

38

Define negative feedback and give an example

Opposes original stimulus
EX: temperature raises , sweat release from body to LOWER temperature

39

Define positive feedback and give an example

Exaggerates or enhances the original stimulus
Ex- blood clotting mechanism

40

What is the pericardium?

Serious membrane lining the cardiac cavity

41

What are the 2 major body cavities in the body Nd what are the separated by

1. Thoracic cavity
2. Abdominopelvic cavity
Separated by the diaphragm

42

What does the thoracic cavity contain:

2 lungs and the heart

43

The peritoneal is lined with the :

Peritoneum

44

What's a set point?

Desired value in homeostasis

45

What's the anatomical position?

1. Stands straight up
2. Palms forward
3. Feet flat
4. Arms to side

46

Difference between supine and prone position.

Prone body is lying face down
Supine body is face up

47

Cephalic and caudal difference

Cephalic is head and caudal is tail

48

What is a saturation limit

Maximum rate of reaction for a substrate

49

Where do enzymes receive energy for reactions

ATP

50

What does ATP stand for

Adenosine triphosphate