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Flashcards in Intro to CNS CADE Deck (41):
1

The CNS consists of the?

Brain and Spinal Cord

2

PNS consists of ___ pairs of _____ nerves and ___ pairs of _____ nerves

31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves

3

What are the two enlargements in the spinal cord? Why might this be?

-Cervical Enlargement

-Lumbar Enlargement

-upper limbs (cervical) &lower limbs(lumbar), need more neurons because fine sensation in our limbs than we would in our trunk (thoracic area).

4

Neurons are nerve cells specialized for ____ and ____ information to _____ cells

*Dendrites are neuron cell processes that ____ ____

#Axons are neuron cell processes that ____ _____ to other cells

 

  • receiving and transmitting information
  • Effector
  • *Receive info
  • #Send info

 

5

_____ insulates the axon because why?

Most motor neurons are classified as ______.

-Myelin

-so the electrical signal will not degrade while traveling down the nerve.

-multipolar

6

-Communication between neurons occurs at _____.

-Action potentials can cause release of ________.

-Neurotransmitter function can be____ or _____

synapses

NT

excitatory or inhibitory

7

Glial cells do things like _____ axons with myelin to ensure electrical signal does not degrade over distance and create Bridges between neurons and _____ ______ or the ____ _____ _____.

-insulate

-blood vessels

-BBB

8

Gray matter is mainly what?

GM is used for?

GM can be found in the ____ _____ and groups of cell bodies in CNS called ______.

Neuronal cells bodies

 synaptic communication

cerebral cortex

nuclei

9

White matter is mainly made of what?

These will Transmit _____ signals over long distances via _____

These pathways can be named what 5 things for WM?

 

  • thousands of myelinated axons
  • electrical
  • neural pathways
  • Funiculus
  •   Tract
  •   Fasciculus
  •   Lemniscus
  •   Bundle

10

What are nuclei in the CNS?

discrete clusters of gray matter in the CNS

11

Most of the synaptic communication between neurons occurs where?

Gray Matter

12

Pathways whose origin, course, and target remain on the same side of the CNS are termed ______, while those that cross the midline are termed _______.

  • ipsilateral
  • contralateral

13

Another type of crossing pathway is a commissure, which connects corresponding regions on each side of _____ or _____ _____.

the brain or spinal cord.

14

Match colors!

Q image thumb

-Blue: Telencephalon (forebrain)

-Purple: Diencephalon

-Red:Medulla (foramen magnum)

-Pink: Spinal Cord

-Yellow: Pons

-Black: Cerebellum (metencephalon)

-Green:

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

15

What are these Cuts?

1,2&3?

Q image thumb

1. Transverse

2. Coronal

3. Sagittal

16

Pink? Blue? Orange? Green?

Q image thumb

P-Occipital Lobe

B- Frontal Lobe

G- Temporal Lobe

O-Pareital

17

The ______ (forebrain) Has numerous crevices called _____ (_____ are the biggest groves)), with bumps or ridges between them called ______

Telencephalon

sulci

fissures

gyri

18

1-5?

Q image thumb

  1. Midbrain
  2. Cerebral peduncle

  3. Inter-peduncular fossa

  4. Superior colliculus

  5. Inferior colliculus

19

1-5 & #5. connects what to what?

Q image thumb

  1. cranial nerve V
  2. Middle Cerebellar peduncle

  3. Pons

  4. cranial nerve V
  5. Middle Cerebellar Peduncle- connects Pons to cerebellum

20

1-5 & what should these words remind you of?

Q image thumb

  1. Medulla
  2. Olive
  3. Pyramid
  4. Fasciculus cuneatus

  5. Fasciculus gracilis

  6. Fasciculus=WM 

21

1-4

Q image thumb

  1. Lateral Sulci
  2. Anterior Median Fissure
  3. Posterioir Median sulcus
  4. Posterior Intermediate Sulci

22

The internal structure of the spinal cord is organized into:  inner core of _______ containing neuronal cell bodies while interconnecting _____ _____ ____ Form white matter externally.

Gray Matter

nerve fiber tracts

23

______ ______ is largest in the lower cervical and lower lumbar segments while ______ ______ increases at successively higher levels.

Gray Matter

White Metter

A image thumb
24

A discrete group of neuronal cell bodies is termed a ______ in CNS _____ ______ , whereas in the PNS, it is called a _______

Nucleus

Gray Matter

Ganglion

25

1-3

Q image thumb

  1. Dorsal (posterior) horn

  2. Lateral Horn

  3. Ventral (anterior) horn

26

White matter of the spinal cord is divided into ______:

1.

2.

3.

These funiculi carry ascending and descending tracts between ______&_______

funiculi

  1. •anterior/ventral,

  2. •lateral

  3. •posterior/dorsal.

spinal cord and brain

27

1-2

 

what tracts do the lateral and vental funiculi have?

Q image thumb

  1. fasciculus gracilis
  2. fasciculus cuneatus

lateral-spinothalamic/spinocerebellar/corticospinal

ventral-spinothalamic and corticospinal

28

Posterior/dorsal funiculi carry sensory info about ____ ____, _____ _______, & _____ _____; it is only _____

The 2 posterior/dorsal columns are what and what do they involve (roughly)?

 

position sense, vibratory sense and fine touch; only sensory

•fasciculus gracilis (legs+up)

•fasciculus cuneatus (arms+up)

29

Lateral funiculi carry_____ & _____ tracts (like two chords going opp. Directions)

The sensory info goes to _______ via the _________ tracts for balance and to the _______ via the _______ tract for pain and temp.

The motor output goes from brain to skeletal muscles of limbs via the ____ ________ ______.

sensory and motor

cerebellum 

spinocerebellar

thalamus

lateral spinothalamic tracts

lateral cortico-spinal tract

30

The Anterior/_____ funiculi sends sensory info to the ______ via the _____ for crude touch. Motor output from brain goes to ______of trunk via the _____ _____ ______.

ventral

thalamus

anterior spinothalamic tract

skeletal muscles

ant. corticospinal tract

31

Fit the description with Thoracic, cervical, or lumbar spinal cord:

1. wide  and squashed looking, lots of white matter, ventral horn enlargement, fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus.

2. round looking, little white matter, ventral horn enlargement, fasciculus gracilis.

3. round looking, lots of white matter, little gray matter, lateral horn (intermediolateral nucleus)

 

1. Cervical

2. Lumbar

3. Thoracic

32

The ____ is enclosed in several protective layers that support it and cushion it from trauma. 

label them:

Q image thumb

  • CNS
  • Dura Mater- "tough mother"
  • Arachnoid Mater "spider like
  • Pia Mater- "delicate mother"
  • *Bone surrounds the outside (skull/vetebra)

33

The _____ _____ is between the arachnoid mater and pia mater; it is a ____ space in the CNS and has _____ _____ _____ circulating within it. 

subarachnoid space

true

CSF

34

The Epidural space is between the ____ and ____ ____, it is a ___ space and potential site for ______.

The Subdural space is between the ____ ____ and ____ ___, it is a ____ space, and potential site for hematoma aswell.

Bone and dura mater

potential

hematoma

Dura mater & arachnoid mater

potential

35

CSF is a clear colorless liquid that fills and surrounds the CNS to bathes brain and spinal cord; it is important in ____&_____ ____, and to act as a _____.

 

•Nutrient and waste exchange

•Cushion for CNS

36

CSF circulates in the ___ ___ and ______.  CSF is made continuously by specialized vascular structure called the _____ _____.

-subarachnoid space

-ventricles

-choroid plexus

37

Label the following:

Navy

Green

Purple

Pink

Light Blue

Red

Q image thumb

N-Subarachnoid space

G-2 lateral ventricles

Purp-Midline Third Ventricle

Pink- Choroid Plexus

Light Blue- 4th Ventricle

R-Central canal of Spinal cord

38

The _____ _____ of _____ acts as a door way from the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle, then the ____ ____ allows CSF to move from 3rd to 4th ventricles. The 2  ____ _____ of _____ and, further down, the _____ ______ of ______ allow CSF to flow into the subarachnoid space.

  • interventricular foramen of Monro
  • Cerebral aqueduct
  • the 2 Lateral apertures (of Luschka)
  • Median aperture (of Magendie

39

From the subarachnoid space, CSF is reabsorbed into the___ ____ through ____ ____ valves formed by the arachnoid mater called _____ _____/____; these act as lil _____ to recirculate blood

 

  • venous blood
  • one way
  • arachnoid villi/granulations
  • filters

40

Hydrocephalus occurs when what happens?

Hydrocephalus occurs when too much CSF occupies the subarachnoid space

 

41

Anterior/ventral horn nuclei are organized medial to lateral AND anterior to posterior; the Medial nuclei supply muscles of _____, while lateral nuclei supply muscles of _____.

Neurons supplying flexor muscles are_____ to those supplying extensors

trunk

limbs

posterior