Flashcards in Intro to Histology & Microscopy Deck (23):
What is a 'stereotypical' cell?
Name health problems caused at tissue level
Meningitis, malaria, diabetes, cancer, cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's, broken bones, burns etc.
At what level do drugs work?
The cell/tissue level
What is Histology?
The microscopic study of tissues
What are the components of tissue?
Cells and Extracellular Matrix
What are the 4 main tissue types?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous
Briefly describe the main tissue types
Epithelial - Covers body surfaces
Connective - Protects & supports e.g fat, blood, cartilage
Muscle - Cells which contract to generate force
Nervous - Generate electrical signals in response to environment
What is the ECM?
Material located between cells.
Different depending on type of tissue - determines tissue qualities.
What are the components of the ECM?
Fibres & Ground Substance
How are most cells connected?
Most cells anchored to other cells/structures within tissue.
Joined at cell junctions.
What are the components of cytoplasm?
Cytosol, cytoskeleton & organelles
What are features of Light Microscopy?
Visible light passes through specimen.
Can only see general features of specimen e.g shape/structure of cells.
Smallest thing can see is nucleus
What are features of Electron Microscopy?
An electron beam passes through specimen.
Can see fine structures.
More powerful, more depth.
What are features of Scanning Electron Microscopy?
Electron beam scattered off surface.
See surface of structure.
What are features of Transmission EM?
Electron beam passed through specimen.
See inside/through structure.
Name stains used in Light Microscopy
L.M have stains for specific structures:
Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E)
Name stains used in Electron Microscopy
E.M have non-specific stains:
Define Magnification and how to find it
Number of times bigger image is compared to real thing.
Size of image under microscope / Actual size.
So, Size under microscipe = Actual size X Magnification
Need to consider eyepiece & objective lens when considering magnification.
Ability to distinguish between two things - how clear it is.
Compare scale in cm, mm, um, nm.
1cm = 10mm = 10,000um = 10,000,000nm
Compare Limit of Resolution of Human eye, L.M and E.M
Human eye has LOR 100-200um or 0.1-0.2mm.
L.M has LOR of 0.2um or 200nm.
(Average cell between 1 & 100um - Outlines organelles but not virus)
E.M has LOR of 2nm.
Describe the Planes.
Sagittal - Left/Right
Frontal/Coronal - Anterior/Posterior
Transverse/Cross - Superior/Inferior
Oblique - Other than at a right angle