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Flashcards in Intro to Human Physiology Deck (60):
1

What is physiology

The study of the normal functioning of an organism

2

What us the structural organisation of an organism

cells -> tissues -> organs -> organ systems -> organisms

3

Give an example of a cell

muscle

4

Give examples of tissue

Muscle, connective, blood vessels, nerves

5

Give an example of an organ

Tongue

6

Give an example of a system

Digestive

7

What are the two types of cells

Sheets and tubes

8

What is an example of a sheet (lamina) cell

Epithelia

9

What are the functions of the epithelia (Pengiuns Sense Approaching Dogs Suspiciously)

Protection Secretion Absorption Dialysis Sensation

10

Where do epithelial cells offer protection

Skin, oesophagus

11

How do epithelial cells offer secretion

Sweat, mucous

12

Where do epithelial cells offer absorption

Intestinal lining

13

When do epithelial cells offer dialysis

Filtration in the kidney

14

Where do epithelial cells provide sensation

Skin, stomach

15

Describe this diagram

Round ring = tubule

Other cells = glandular tissue e.g. producing saliva

16

Name 3 cells which contract

  1. Cardiac muscle cell
  2. Skeletal muscle cell
  3. Smooth muscle cell

17

Describe 4 characteristcs of the extracellular matrix (ECM)

  • A supporting tissue that surrounds cells (packing tissue)
  • Produced by specialised cells such as fibroblasts
  • Composed of extracellular fluid (ground substance) and fibres such as collagen and elastin
  • Very important in cells/ organs that are subjected to physical stress: skin, bones, joints, tendons, bladder

18

What is extracellular fluid

Made up of plamsa (fluid part of blood) and interstitial fluid. 

Interstitial describes space between 2 cells

19

How does a cell receive oxygen and get rid of CO2

Via the ECF

20

What is a cell plasma membrane

A fluid bilayer with protiens embedded in it

21

What is the plasma membrane composed of

Integral proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.

Some proteins are connected to glycolipids allowing the cell to attach to material in the extracellular matrix. 

Protein pores/ channels aloows controlled flow of ions/ H2O in and out of the cell

22

What are the six membrane properties vital to physiological processes

  1. Permeability
  2. Responding to molecular signals by specific RECEPTORS to which molecules bind
  3. Housing specific enzymes in the membrane to control certain chemical reactions
  4. Cell adhesion proteins
  5. Active transport processes

23

Describe the features of the plasma membrane layer in terms of permability

The hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer prevents the passage of water soluble substances between the intra-cellular fluid and extra-cellular fluid. 

BUT some membrane proteins form channels thorugh which water soluble ions can flow. Channels canbe opened and closed as required.

Some cell types have carrier molecules to transport specific molecules into the cells, e.g. iodine into thyroid glands

 

24

Describe the features of the plasma membrane layer in terms of responding to molecular signals by specific RECEPTORS to which molecules can bind

Growth factors, neurotransmitters bind. Initiate a series of intracellular events that change a cells activity. 

Whatever a receptor responds to it always results in something happening in th nucleus = gene expression = protein production

25

What do growth factors binding to receptors result in

Cell division

26

What do neurotransmitters binding to cells result in

Nerve action

27

Describe the features of the plasma membrane layer in terms of housing specific enzymes in the membrane 

The specific enzmes housed in the membrane control certain chemical reactions

28

Describe the features of the plasma membrane layer in terms of cell adhesion proteins

Hold cells together e.g. integrins

29

Describe the features of the plasma membrane layer in terms of active transport

Active transport processes such as exocytosis and endocytosis occur

30

What is exocytosis 

Expelling things out of the cell

31

What is endocytosis

Taking things into the cell

32

Which two types of cells last your whole life

  1. Nerve cells (neurones)
  2. Skeletal muscle cells

33

What are the two reasons cells need to be repaired

Due to 'wear and tear' (most)

Needed for wound healing

34

What is the source of new cells

Stem cells that divide by mitosis to replace old/ damaged/ worn out cells

35

Why is dehydration a killer

a.k.a why must the internal environement be kept stable

It is vital to keep the internal environement stable in order for cells to function properly

(chemical and temperature enviroments)

36

What does homeostatic failure lead to 

A pathological state (disease)

37

What is a vital role of all phyiological systems

Maintenance of homeostasis

38

What two factors must be kept constant to maintain a functioning cell

Chemical and physical factors

39

What chemical factors must be kept constant in a cell

  1. Nutrients
  2. O2 and CO2
  3. Waste products
  4. pH
  5. Water
  6. Soluble electrolytes

40

What physical factors must be kept constant

  1. Temperature
  2. Volume
  3. Pressure

41

What 5 physiological systems interact with the external and internal environment

(Sally Never Makes Indigo Rice)

  1. Integumentary system- the skin
  2. Nervous system
  3. Musculoskeletal system
  4. Immune system
  5. Respiratory system

42

How does the skin interact between the internal and external environement

  • Retention of internal fluids
  • Keeps bacteria, viruses and chemicals out
  • Contributes to temperature regulation (sweat glands, blood vessels)

43

How does the nervous system interact between the internal and external environement

Senses and monitors the external environment

44

How does the musculoskeletal system interact between the internal and external environement

Makes you able to respond to the external environment

45

How does the immune system interact between the internal and external environement

Protects you against inavders from the external environement

46

How does the respiratory system interact between the internal and external environement

Extracts oxygen from the air and returns carbon dioxide to the environment

47

What are the 5 systems that extend throughout the body

(Cats Don't Urinate Near Elephants)

  1. Cardiovascular system
  2. Digestive system
  3. Urinary system
  4. Nervous system
  5. Endocrine system

48

What does the cardiovascular system do

Delivers oxygen to all tissues and removes carbon dioxide

49

What does the digestive system do

Obtains food and water, utilises it and returns undigested food to the exterior

50

What does the urinary system do

Removes waste, excess water, salts etc. from the internal environment by forming and passing out urine

51

What does the nervous system do

Controls activities of the body by electrical impulses in the brain and nerves. Physiology of leraning and memory

52

What does the endocrine system do

Controls various processes of the body by hormones secreted into, and delivered by, the CVS

53

What does the reproductive system do

Keeps the species going to the next generation.

Gametogenesis.

Major contribution to human behaviour.

(not directly involved in homeostasis)

54

What is gametogenesis

The basis of human evolution by neneficial genetic mutations

55

What is negative feedback in physiology

How the body detects changes in the internal environment which need to be controlled in order to maintain homeostasis

56

What are instrinsic control systems

Ones within the body/ organ

57

What are extrinsic control systems

Ones outside the body/ organ

58

Describe the flow chart

Decrease in blood pressure = stimulation in response (+)

Increase in blood pressure = inhibit in response (-)

59

In a flow chart what does + mean

Stimulates

60

In a flow chart what does - mean

inhibits