Intro to Int. Metab., Bioenergetics & Oxid Metab. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Int. Metab., Bioenergetics & Oxid Metab. Deck (27):
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Define Metabolism

Sum of chemical reactions that occur in cell, tissue or body.

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Intermediary Metabolism

Generates energy from fuel molecules to feed all cell of the body

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Catabolism

Oxidative degradation of complex nutrient molecules (C, L, P) obtained either from environment or from cellular reserves
Exergonic
energy captured by NADH or FADH to make ATP

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Anabolism

Complex biomolecules (P, NA, PS, L) are assembled from simple precursors.
Endergonic
Covalent bonds formed
ATP driven

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Endergonic

Need Energy

+ ∆G

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Exergonic

Release
-∆G

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Catabolism energy poor end products

CO2 H2O NH3

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Anabolism precursor molecules

AA, Sugars, FA, Nitrogenous Bases

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negative ∆G

Proceeds to equilibrium - gives off energy

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positive ∆G

Needs additional energy to act

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Generic Pathway of Catabolism

Macromolecules to Building Blocks to Acetyl CoA

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Electron transporters in energy reactions a.k.a CoEnzymes

NAD+ and FAD

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ATP functions

-Store high energy chemical bonds
-resultant chemical energy can be turned into different kinds of energy (chemical, mechanical, heat)
-Second substrate
-Allosteric effector

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ATP as Second Substrate def. & e.g.

Kinases use ATP to transfer the terminal phosphate groups to various acceptors
- phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate with liberation of ADP

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Energy-Rich Molecules (+what process for each)

ATP - oxidative catabolism
GTP - gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis
UTP - glycogen synthesis
CTP - lipid synthesis
Acetyl CoA - Oxidative catabolism
Succinyl CoA - oxidative catabolism
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate - glycolysis
phosphoenolpyruvate - glycolysis

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Anaerobic process (+e.g)

no oxygen
in Cytosol, glycolytic pathway

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aerobic ( + e.g.)

requires O2
in mitochondria
large mounts of energy

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Acetyl CoA Process - Oxygen rich

A CoA enter TCA - oxidized fully - generates GTP - reduces NADH and FADH that then enter terminal oxidation system to produce ATP

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Major energy generating rxns in Mitochodria (+ Location)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) - Mitosol
Fatty Acid beta-oxidation - Mitosol
Krebs cycle - Mitosol
Terminal Oxidation (Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation) - Mitochondrial inner membrane

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Outer Mit. Membrane

Simple. Permeable. Few Functions

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Inner Mit. Membrane

Complex. 80% protein. semi-permeable.
Contains most energy systems

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Transporters

Part of inner membrane that regulates transport of molecules

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Substrate shuttles

Transport reducing equivalents from NADH in cytosol across the inner membrane for energy generation
Irreversible

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Transfer reducing equivalents from cytosol to mitochondrial matrix

Malate aspartate shuttle
alpha-glycerol phosphate shuttle

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Examples of cells that use glycolysis as main energy source

Chondrocytes
Retina, Sclera
White Muscle Cells
Mature Erythrocytes

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Examples of cells that use Oxidative Phosphorylation (Glucose and Lipids) as main energy source

Liver Cells
Cardiac Cells
Red Muscle Cells

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Examples of cells that use Oxidative Phosphorylation (Glucose Only)

Adult Brain Cells