Intro to Neuroanatomy and Brain Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Neuroanatomy and Brain Structure Deck (87):
1

2 broad divisions of the nervous system

central nervous system
peripheral nervous system

2

3 subdivision of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

3

CNS is composed of ____ and PNS ?

CNS = brain and spinal cord
PNS = spinal and cranial nerves to the rest of the body

4

structural and functional unit of the nervous system

neuron

5

each neuron consists of what 3 things

cell body, axon (info out), dendrite (info in)

6

what are the 3 types of neurons and which is the most common

multipolar (most), bipolar, unipolar

7

what are the main 3 classes of neurotransmitters

small molecules (Ach), monoamines, neuropeptides

8

what are the 3 types of axons in the CNS

tract, lemniscus, peduncle

9

what are the axons in the PNS

nerves

10

what are the 2 types of nerve cell bodies

nucleus, ganglion

11

definition for the connection of axons at the midline from DIFFERENT locations

decussation

12

definition for connection of axons at midline from the exact same location on the opp. side

commisure

13

what is the largest commisure in the brain

corpus callosum

14

what is a gyri

ridges of the brain

15

what is the sulci

grooves of the brain, (deep sulci also callled fissures)

16

what are the 5 lobes of a cerebral hemisphere

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, limbic

17

primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe

precentral gyrus

18

Broca's area

area of frontal lobe (usually left side) responsible for production of language

19

what functional area of frontal lobe is responsible for executive functions (personality, foresight)

prefrontal cortex

20

the postcentral gyrus is the primary _____ cortex of the parietal lobe

somatosensory - tactile and proprioception

21

what side of the brain ususally deals with language

left

22

inferior parietal lobule deals with what function ?

language comprehension

23

primary auditory cortex is found on what lobe

temporal

24

what is Wernike's area

posterior aspect of temporal lobe (usually left) involved in language comprehension

25

what what lobe of brain is involved with higher order visual processing, learning, and memory

temporal lobe

26

where is the cuneus and lingual gyrus located

medial surface of the occipital lobe

27

what lobe of brain is exclusively used for vision

occipital lobe

28

what is the main function of the limbic system

emotions, drive-related behavior, memory

29

the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri largley make up ?

the limbic lobe

30

where is the insula located and what is its function

deep in the lateral sulcus overlying the fusion of telencephalon and diencephalon
-taste

31

four divisions of the diencephalon

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus

32

what is the massa intermedia

intrathalamic adhesion, area of fusion of thalamus across midline

33

the line where the 3rd ventricle attaches to the thalamus

stria medullaris

34

the thalamus significant and central importance is in _____ function. it has no ___ function except for olfaciton

CNS and motor, sensory

35

what separates the thalamus and hypothalamus

hypothalamic sulcus in wall of 3rd ventricle

36

connection b/w hypothalamus and pituitary gland

infundibular stalk

37

what part of the diencephalon is the king autonomic ganglion and visceral control center

hypothalamus

38

function of the brainstem

acts as a highway of info. to/from cerebrum

39

3 subdivisions of the brainstem

midbrain, pons, medulla

40

what CN arise from the midbrain

III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear)

41

what CN arise from pons

V(trigeminal), VI(abducens), VII(facial), VIII(vestibulocochlear)

42

what CN arise from the medulla

IX-glossopharyngeal ,X-vagus ,XI-accessory ,XII - hypoglossal

43

what is the midline vermis

midline of cerebellum

44

the striatum is apart of the basal ganglia, more specifically its componets are

caudate and putamen

45

lenticular nucleus is apart of the basal ganglia, more specifically its componets are ?

putamen and globus pallidus

46

basal ganglia is involved with what function

movement control

47

the amygdala is apart of what system and can beneath the ____ in the temporal lobe

limbic system, beneath the uncus

48

what part of the brain is filled with CSF

ventricles

49

where is CSF fluid made

choroid plexus

50

what is the function of ventricles ? which is the largest ?

suspend the brain and regulate its fluids
-lateral ventricle

51

large space b/w the arachnoid mater and dura mater filled with CSF fluid

subarachnoid cisterns

52

what is the largest subarachnoid cistern

cisterna magna

53

what is the major site of CSF reabsorbtion into venous system

archnoid villi

54

what connects the 3rd and 4th ventrical

cerebral aquduct

55

which has greater, CSF pressure or venous pressure

CSF>venous pressure

56

dural reflections are good for support of skull, but if intracranial pressure builds what may result

herniation or subdural hematoma

57

what allows the brain to turn with the head

meninges

58

what gives the brain buoyancy

CSF

59

3 layers of the meninges

dura (outer)
arachnoid (middle where CSF flows)
pia (inner attached to CNS)

60

what is the leptomeninges

arachnoid and pia mater together

61

a tear of meningeal arteries b/w the skull and dura would result in

epidural hematoma

62

tear in menigeal bridging veins b/w 2 layers of the dura would result in

subdural hematoma

63

what and where are the 2 main dural folds

falx cerebri - b/w cerebral hemishperes
tentorium cerebelli - b/w cerebrum and cerebellum

64

supratentorial part of tentorium cereblli would contain _____ infratentorial part ______

cerebrum
cerebellum and brainstem

65

what is the area called b/w the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater

dural venous sinuses

66

what 2 main arteries supply the CNS arterial supply

Internal carotid and Vertebral aa

67

what does the Internal Carotid a. bifurcate into near the optic chiasm

Middle cerebral a. (MCA)
Anterior cerbral a. (ACA)

68

what long and thin branch off the internal carotid is clinically significant in that its involved in strokes

anterior choroidal a.

69

what artery connects the internal carotid a and vertebral vascular system

posterior communicating a.

70

both anterior cerebral arteries (ACA) are connected together by what artery

anterior communicating a.

71

what artery supplies most of the cerebral hemisphere and runs into the lateral sulcus

MCA or middle cerebral a.

72

what is a perforating artery

one that arises from arteries of the deep brain and supply the deep brain

73

what arterial system supplies the brainstem and cerebellum

vertebral basilar system

74

both vertebral arteries connect near the pons to for what artery

basilar a.

75

what does the basilar a. bifurcate into

2 posterior cerebral aa. (PCA's)

76

each vertebral a. before it becomes the basilar a. gives of what 3 branches ?

anterior spinal a. (supplies anterior 2/3 of cord)
posterior spinal a. (supplies post. 1/3 of cord)
PICA (supplies inferior cerebellum)

77

AICA and SCA aa. come of where in the brain ?

Basilar a.

78

what is the circle of Willis

connection of Internal carotid aa. with vertebral-basilar system via the posterior communicating a.

79

autoregulation of vessels, responses to enzymatic brain activity, and cerebral vascular autonomics are all mechanisms that do what ?

help control cerebral blood flow

80

what controls the movement of fluids from the extracellular space of the body to the extracellular space of the brain

blood-brain barrier

81

located around the 3rd and 4th ventricles, this particular area has NO blood-brain barrier

circumventricular organs

82

what vein does most blood on the superficial brain drain to ?

superior sagittal sinus

83

what vein does most blood from deep internal structures drain too ?

straight sinus

84

the deep venous system of the brain is _____ consistent in organization than superficial venous system

more

85

what is the major deep vein of the brain

internal cerebral vein

86

explain the drainage pathway starting from the internal cerebral vein

paired internal cerebral veins to Great cerebral vein of Galen to straight sinus

87

the great cerebral vein is also called ?

great vein of Galen